Category Archives: Project Management

Resource Management – Important Aspect of Project Management

Resource management is that the economical and effective readying of an organization’s resources after they area unit required. Such resources could embody monetary resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or data technology (IT). Within the realm of project management, processes, techniques and philosophies on the most effective approach for allocating resources are developed. These embody discussions on useful vs. cross-functional resource allocation furthermore as processes espoused by organizations like PMI through their PMBOK methodology to project management. Resource management could be a key component to activity resource estimating and project human resource management. each area unit essential elements of a comprehensive project management arrange to execute and monitor a project with success. As is that the case with the larger discipline of project management, there area unit resource management software system tools out there that modify and assist the method of resource allocation to comes and portfolio resource visibility together with provide and demand of resources.

Resource Management

HR (Human Resource) Management – Overview

Resource Management is the science of allocating human resources among varied comes or business units, increasing the employment of obtainable personnel resources to attain business goals; and activity the activities that area unit necessary within the maintenance of that force through identification of staffing needs, coming up with and oversight of payroll and advantages, education and skilled development, and administering their work-life wants. The economical and effective readying of an organization’s personnel resources wherever and after they area unit required, and in possession of the tools, coaching and skills needed by the work.

One resource management technique is resource leveling. It aims at smoothing the stock of resources to be had, reducing each excess inventories and shortages.

The required information are: the stress for varied resources, forecasted by fundamental measure into the longer term as way as is affordable, furthermore because the resources’ configurations needed in those demands, and also the provide of the resources, once more forecasted by fundamental measure into the longer term as way as is affordable.

The goal is to attain 100% utilization however that’s impossible, once weighted by necessary metrics and subject to constraints, for example: meeting a minimum service level, however otherwise minimizing value.

The principle is to take a position in resources as hold on capabilities, then unleash the capabilities as demanded.

A dimension of resource development is enclosed in resource management by that investment in resources will be preserved by a smaller further investment to develop a brand new capability that’s demanded, at a lower investment than putting off the present resource and replacement it with another that has the demanded capability.

In conservation, resource management could be a set of practices referring to maintaining natural systems integrity. samples of this type of management area unit air resource management, conservation, forestry, life management and water resource management. The broad term for this sort of resource management is natural resources management (NRM).

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Software Configuration Management (SCM) – Track Defects and Changes Effectively

In software package engineering, Software Configuration Management (SCM) is that the task of tracking and dominant changes within the software. Configuration management practices embody revision management and therefore the institution of baselines.

SCM issues itself with respondent the question “Somebody did one thing, however will one reproduce it?” typically the matter involves not reproducing “it” identically, however with controlled, progressive changes. respondent the question so becomes a matter of comparison totally different results and of analysing their variations. ancient configuration management generally centered on controlled creation of comparatively easy merchandise. Now, implementers of SCM face the challenge of handling comparatively minor increments below their own management, within the context of the advanced system being developed.



The history and world of SCM (which typically varies) has given rise to difference. Roger Pressman, in his book Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, states that SCM could be a “set of activities designed to regulate amendment by distinctive the work merchandise that area unit seemingly to vary, establishing relationships among them, shaping mechanisms for managing totally different versions of those work merchandise, dominant the changes obligatory, and auditing and reportage on the changes created.”

Source configuration management could be a connected practise typically wont to indicate that a spread of artifacts could also be managed and versioned, as well as software package code, documents, style models, and even the directory structure itself.

Atria used “SCM” to mean “software configuration management”. Gartner uses the term software package amendment and configuration management.


The goals of SCM area unit generally:

Configuration identification – What code area unit we have a tendency to operating with?

Configuration management – dominant the discharge of a product and its changes.

Status accounting – Recording and reportage the standing of elements.

Review – making certain completeness and consistency among elements.

Build management – Managing the method and tools used for builds.

Process management – making certain adherence to the organization’s development method.

Environment management – Managing the software package and hardware that host our system.

Teamwork – Facilitate team interactions associated with the method.

Defect Tracking– ensuring each defect has traceability back to the supply

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Critical Path Method (CPM) – Must technique for Project Planning

Critical Path Method (CPM) – A must needed technique for Project Planning

Brief history
Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed throughout late 50’s by a team consisting of Morgan Walker of Du Pont and James E. Kelly, Jr. of Remington Rand Corporation. The team was fashioned with associate objective of up the design and programming of advanced chemical plants. when arising with the basic thought of CPM, the team complete that there’s a necessity of nice process capability so as to tackle an advanced and sophisticated construction project . consequently, the team and Dr. John W. Mauchly, a director of UNIVAC at that point, adapt the technique and processed the CPM.

Critical Path Method (CPM) may be a network-based calculation that focuses on times associated with activities. It is used for defining critical and non-critical project activities. Project Manager can focus on critical activities in order to keep project on track.


Four main times in Critical Path Method are:

  • Early Start Date (E-SD or ESD)
  • Early Finish Date (E-FD or EFD)
  • Late Start Date (L-SD or LSD)
  • Late Finish Date (L-FD or LFD)

As their names imply,

  • ESD is the earliest time that an activity can start.
  • EFD is the earliest time that an activity is expected to finish.
  • LSD is the latest time that an activity can start WITHOUT delaying project completion.
  • LFD is the latest time that an activity is expected to finish so that project completion is not delay.

To perform the Critical Path Method, schedulers area unit needed to:
1. Establish lists of activities ( what needs to be done)
2. Estimate activity’s durations ( how long does it take to complete)
3. Define relationship between activities (which activity needs to be done first)
4. Draw a network ( let’s get a tangible drawing in place)
5. Calculate the four main times. (its fun time)

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System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Model

SDLC is also called as Classic Life Cycle Model (or) Linear consecutive Model (or) Waterfall methodology.

This model has the subsequent activities:

1. System/Information Engineering and Modeling

As software system is often of an outsized system (or business), work begins by establishing the needs for all system parts then allocating some set of those requirements to software system. This technique read of SDLC is crucial once the software system should interface with alternative parts like hardware, individuals and alternative resources. System is that the basic and extremely essential demand for the existence of software system in any entity. Therefore if the system is not in place, the system ought to be designed and put in place. In some cases, to extract the utmost output, the system ought to be re-engineered and clothed . Once the perfect system is designed or tuned, the event team studies the software system demand for the system.

2. Software System Demand Analysis

This method is additionally called feasibleness study of SDLC. during this section, the event team visits the client and studies their system. They investigate the requirement for potential software system automation within the given system. By the tip of the feasibleness study, the team furnishes a document that holds the various specific recommendations for the candidate system. It additionally includes the personnel assignments, costs, project schedule, target dates etc…. the necessity gathering method is intense and focussed specially on software system. to know the character of the program(s) to be engineered, the system engineer or “Analyst” should perceive the knowledge domain for the software system, likewise as needed operate, behavior, performance and interfacing. The essential purpose of this section is to seek out the requirement and to outline the matter that has to be resolved .

3. System Analysis and Style

In this section, the software system development method, the software’s overall structure and its nuances area unit outlined. In terms of the client/server technology, the amount of tiers required for the package design, the info style, the info structure style etc… area unit all outlined during this section. A software system development model is so created. Analysis and style area unit terribly crucial within the whole development cycle. Any defect within the style section can be terribly dear to unravel within the later stage of the software system development. a lot of care is taken throughout this section. The system of rules of the merchandise is developed during this phase.

4. Code Generation

The design should be translated into a machine-readable kind. The code generation step performs this task. If the planning is performed during a elaborate manner, code generation will be accomplished while not a lot of complication. Programming tools like compilers, interpreters, debuggers etc… area unit wont to generate the code. totally different high level programming languages like C, C++, Pascal, Java area unit used for cryptography. With reference to the kind of application, the correct artificial language is chosen.

5. Testing

Once the code is generated, the software system program testing phase of SDLC begins. totally different testing methodologies area unit obtainable to unravel the bugs that were committed throughout the previous phases. totally different testing tools and methodologies area unit already obtainable. Some corporations build their own testing tools that area unit tailor created for his or her own development operations.

6. Maintenance

The software system will certainly endure modification once it’s delivered to the client. There will be several reasons for this alteration to occur. modification might happen due to some sudden input values into the system. additionally, the changes within the system might directly have an effect on the software system operations. The software system ought to be developed to accommodate changes that would happen throughout the post implementation amount.

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Rapid Application Development (RAD) Model

RAD Model

The RAD model is a linear ordered software system development method that emphasizes a particularly short development cycle. The RAD model may be a “high speed” adaptation of the linear ordered model within which speedy development is achieved by employing a component-based construction approach. Rapid Application Development model follows an incremental software delivery type of model.

Used primarily for data systems applications, the Rapid Application Development approach encompasses the subsequent phases:

1. Business modeling

The data flow among business functions is sculptural during a method that answers the subsequent questions:

  • What data drives the business process?
  • What data is generated?
  • Who generates it?
  • Wherever will the knowledge go?
  • Who processes it?

2. Knowledge modeling

The data flow outlined as a part of the business modeling section is refined into a group of knowledge objects that are required to support the business. The characteristic (called attributes) of every object is known and therefore the relationships between these objects are outlined.


3. Method modeling

The knowledge objects outlined within the data-modeling section are remodeled to attain the knowledge flow necessary to implement a business operation. Process descriptions are created for adding, modifying, deleting, or retrieving an information object.

4. Application generation

The Rapid Application Development model assumes the utilization of the RAD tools like VB, VC++, Delphi etc… instead of making software system victimization standard third generation programming languages. The RAD model works to utilise existing program elements (when possible) or produce reusable elements (when necessary). altogether cases, machine-controlled tools ar wont to facilitate construction of the software system.

5. Testing and turnover

Several of the program elements are already tested as the Rapid Application Development method emphasizes on reuse. This minimizes the testing and development time.

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Spring – the way to look forward

Lets first look at the need for Spring in this agile world. The never-ending meetings. The schedule overruns. The sudden problems. In the midst of all that, you might feel taking into account the project fade away date will never come.

Sooner or then, though, it arrives  regardless of whether you’approaching ready for it!

You have no substitute but to accomplish through each and every part of one one the tasks, issues and problems when the project. But don’t make available them save you snowed in. Keep an eye out for spring. Be ready for the hot weather forward it arrives.

An Added Wardrobe

When spring is knocking, it’s era to obtain a added wardrobe. The unventilated coats and the mittens and the caps can be packed away for taking into account-door-door year. It’s era for shorts, t-shirts and hats that shade you from the sun. Spring is the time for option vivaciousness. A new wardrobe helps everyone realise that it’s era to throw off the accompaniments of winter. It’s period to build happening your wings anew in the sun.

When it comes to a project, perhaps you quirk to put on into a season subsequent to less stressful meetings. Maybe you mannerism more tasks that lessening directly to the finish pedigree. Everything in the office begins to regulate as soon as the project gets stuffy to the be credited gone less. Everything. You can begin to see the fruits of the team’s labours.

Looking Outside

Now that you have one more wardrobe, it’s period to venture uncovered. The cool days are gone. The rain is anti out. It’s time to be outside enjoying the sun and flowers even though they bloom.

On a project, as you stuffy the cease of a phase or the grow less of the complete project, you can begin to reclaim your lunch hour and your social networking. Get out and enjoy the fact that your moving picture is no longer consumed along with updating schedules. That revising deliverable isn’t keeping you awake at night.

Enjoy the natural crack brought upon by the add less of the project or the project phase. Of course, if the project is giving out late or in make miserable, you may compulsion to double the length of upon the piece of legislation back you can really enjoy the springtime. Consider that epoch a long winter. But save in mind that the spring will come sooner or complex no event what else happens.


Most of each and every one one, bearing in mind spring is in parable to (symbolically or on the other hand), it’s time to celebrate. Break out some satisfying food. Fire happening the grill outside. Invite neighbours and family. Open going on the pool or the backyard. Spring is a reminder that cartoon thrives — no matter how long or cold the winter is.

This might just be a easy profit together more than donuts in the office. Whatever it is, there should be some available of break from the daily scrape the length of to recognize the achievements and breakthroughs the project team has practiced.

After every, what permissible is the hot weather if you don’t believe the era to enjoy it? Will you be ready?

Imbibing Project Management into Six Sigma System

For achieving organisational objectives, more and more businesses are now implementing air progression methodologies such as Total Quality Management, Total Quality Control and Six Sigma across all in force departments inside their organisations.

All these methodologies make a get merger of of have their assistance, but the one that offers the most help is very Six Sigma because it is based going vis–vis for the concept of continuous mood improvements; and as such, it is not limited to achieving just the preset atmosphere levels.

Six-Sigma and Project Management:

Six Sigma may have become the buzzword in the make miserable world, but that does not twist toward that businesses can ignore the importance of subsequent to the indispensable guidelines even if implementing Six Sigma. Six Sigma every single one helps in reducing the number of defects and improving overall quality, but that is realizable single-handedly behind than businesses follow the affable enough process of implementation.

The one place where businesses compulsion to be especially cautious is project meting out, because even a little oversight or accessory error can easily undermine the nimbleness of the project. In order to ensure that maximum minister to are realised, businesses showing off to unite Project Management taking into consideration Six Sigma using the pleasurable DMAIC process stands for Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, and Control. When DMAIC is used for Project Management, the probability of failures and redundancies is condensed substantially.

DMAIC helps because it follows a scientific door for making the required changes and relies heavily occurring for statistical tools and techniques that automatically shorten the probability of human errors or oversights. For ensuring full of animatronics project giving out, businesses first craving to add to and quantify problems that are already there or those that might occur in forward-thinking (Define Phase). After this, they dependence to united data linked to the specified suffering and “Measure” the extent of irregular that the difficulty can cause to the project.

In the “Analyse” phase, the specified distressing is analysed in detail and efforts are made to devise in force solutions that will plus in neutralising the defined tortured. Next comes the “Improve” phase, in which the suggested alleviate events are finally implemented. In the last phase, “Control,” specially meant run systems are ornament place in view of that as to fighting out the effectiveness of the changes that have been implemented and furthermore to ensure that the tormented does not repeat itself.

The chances of errors are automatically shortened in DMAIC because and no-one else foolproof statistical tools and techniques are used such as fishbone diagram, Ishikawa diagram, design of experiments (DOE), failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), process flow diagram and gage repeatability, and reproducibility (R&R) studies.

Six Sigma is already being used extensively, but bearing in mind than competition increasing by the minute, the need for integrating Six Sigma taking into account Project Management will be felt even more in the days yet to be.

Agile Feedback Loops – Catalyst of Effective Agile Product Development

Agile Software Development – Feedback loops are very critical to the effectiveness of Agile development processes. Feedback loops provide opportunities for product and process improvements. In other terms they act as catalyst for effective agile product development.

One of the key differences between conventional projects and agile projects is that agile projects have shorter and frequent feedback loops.

Idea here is to change something in the process, see how it went on, learn from it and then adapt the improvement. To do this on a continual basis to ensure the best and continuous improvement is achieved.

To do this XP uses techniques such as Pair Programming, Unit Tests, Continuous Integration whereas as Scrum advocates using Daily Scrums, Sprints etc.

One of the following generic feedback technique can be used by the agile team for building high quality Agile Product:

  1. Capture feedback received from Customer / User community in terms of inputs / review comments / business requirements
  2. Product Manager/ Owner grooms the feedback and prioritize the feedback as part of the re-prioritized backlog
  3. Development Team develops and deliver as per the prioritized feedback
  4. Product Manager/ Owner reviews the developed feature (relevant to the feedback)
  5. The developed feature is then validated by the customer / user community
  6. On satisfactory validation the product feature is finalized. If there are review comments / improvement feedback then steps 1-5 are repeated.

In Agile projects based on the project phase, following techniques / practices are used:

  • Code Reviews to validate the code written
  • Automated Integration tests – essential for continuous integration
  • Automated Acceptance Tests – essential for continuous integration
  • Involvement of customer representative, business experts, end user representative throughout the project development process
    Increasing the number of releases
  • These techniques helps in having shorter feedback loops through frequent verification and validation. This in turn help immensely in effective and rich product development.

Agile Retrospectives and Project Postmortems – Are they different?

Project Retrospectives give the project team to review what was done correctly and what was done incorrectly in the project execution. In traditional project management, project retrospectives (also known as Postmortems) are conducted at the end of the project which is too late to help. As against this Agile Retrospectives are carried out at the end of each iteration. Hence the agile retrospectives are iterative and incremental. This helps the team to inspect and adapt in-between and quite often.

Broad Activities carried out in Agile retrospectives:

  • Reviewing work carried out in the last iteration
  • Discussing and outlining the personal and team issues
  • Discussing what worked well during the iteration
  • Finalizing and agreeing on what needs to be changed (Improvement strategies)
  • Finalizing the plan for implementing the changes
  • Agile retrospectives are done at the end of each iteration
  • It gives team the opportunities to inspect and adapt iteratively and incrementally
  • This helps in team find and fix the problems in time and effectively.
  • This helps in continuous improvement and short feedback loops.

Just to reiterate and summarize, the difference between Agile Retrospectives and Postmortems is as given below:

  • Postmortems usually occur at end of the project (or even dead), when it’s too late to plan and implement any improvement on that project.
  • Agile retrospectives occur at the end of iteration.
    Postmortems are generally long feedback loops.
  • Retrospectives are done once per project.
  • Agile Retrospective occur at the end of every iteration and hence are short feedback loops.
  • Postmortems sometimes turn into blame game.
  • Agile retrospectives are carried out iteratively. This ensures the issues are not allowed to be blown out. They are controlled and the project performance is improved. As a result of this the blame game is avoided.

PMI-Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP) – Great way to demostrate your Agility

Project Management Institute (PMI)’s Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP) credential helps the agile project management professionals to demonstrate to their employers that they have the required level of professionalism and activism in Agile Practices of project management.


While Certified Scrum Master (CSM) and Scrum Certified Professional (SCP) certifications cover Scrum Methodology in Agile, ACP covers principles, practices and tools and techniques across agile methodologies that include Scrum, kanban, XP, lean, DSDM, TDD, ATDD and more.

Various tasks executed by the Agile project practitioners during the course of project execution are categorized into six major domains of practice as per ACP certification course. These domains are:

  •  Value Driven Delivery: Domain I
  • Stakeholder Engagement: Domain II
  • Boosting Team Performance Practices: Domain III
  • Adaptive Planning: Domain IV
  • Problem Detection and Resolution: Domain V
  • Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People): Domain VI

Experience Required:
. ACP requires 2000 hrs Project Experience, 1500 hrs Agile . Experience (non-overlapping) and 21 hrs Agile Training.

Training Requirement:
It also requires agile training for 21 hours. These 21 hours are equivalent of 21 PDUs.

Certification Cycle:
ACP credential holder must maintain Credential in 3 year cycles. ACP credential holder needs to earn 30 PDUs in agile project management per three-year cycle.

Exam Fess:
. Member Computer based: $335
. Non-Member computer based: $435
. Member paper based: $270
. Non-Member paper based: $370

So guys get certified in PMI-ACP soon.

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