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Information Technology Sector चे मृगजळ – Is “IT” still for you? A Reality Check


( प्रस्तुत लेखक स्वतः एका बहुराष्ट्रीय IT कम्पनी मध्ये कार्यरत असून ,या क्षेत्राचा १५ वर्षे अनुभव आहे . Information Technology Sector चे मृगजळ लेखात व्यक्त केलेली मते वैयक्तिक आहेत. काही मुद्दे कठोर भाषेत मांडले आहेत .यात कुठल्याही व्यवसायाचा अथवा व्यावसायिकाचा वैयक्तिक उपमर्द करण्याचा हेतू नाही .आपल्या मुलाला अथवा मुलीला “Information Technology Sector” मध्ये पाठवायला बघत असाल तर नक्कीच वाचा आणि आपल्या पाल्याला वाचायला द्या .लेखाचा विषय तांत्रिक असल्याने जिकडे योग्य मराठी प्रमाण प्रतिशब्द मिळाले नाहीत तिकडे मूळ तांत्रिक संज्ञा वापरल्या आहेत )

Information Technology Sector चे मृगजळ : काय सत्य काय असत्य

सध्या वर्तमानपत्र उघडले की Information Technology Sector मंदी आहे आणि हजारो लोकांचे रोजगार जाणार अश्या बातम्या दिसतात . अमेरिकेने आणि इतर देशांनी व्हिसा चे नियम कडक केले असल्याने भारतीय आय टी प्रोफेशनल्स च्या बऱ्याच संधी जाणार अशी ओरड सुद्धा दिसते . या दोन्ही मुद्द्यात नक्कीच तथ्य आहे .पण यासाठी सरसकट आय टी कम्पन्यांना किंवा अमेरिकन सरकार ला व्हिलन बनविण्याआधी काही बाबींचा सर्वांगीण परामर्श घेणे गरजेचे आहे .आपल्या IT Sector बद्दलच्या काही भाबड्या कल्पना आणि समज तपासून पहाण्याची वेळ आलेली आहे .
Information Technology Sector

१. Information Technology Sector मधले भारताचे नक्की योगदान काय ?

” भारतीय संगणक “अभियंते” ( ! ) जगभर भारताचा झेंडा फडकवीत आहेत आणि भारत IT Sector महासत्ता आहे ,” असा एक भाबडा समज आपल्या देशात आहे .रोजगार निर्मिती साठी दुसरे काही ठोस जमत नसल्याने या दिवास्वप्नात जनतेला मग्न ठेवणे हे बेरकी राजकारण्यांच्या सोयीचे सुद्धा आहे . प्रत्यक्षात ९९ % भारतीय आय टी कम्पन्या या केवळ परदेशातील आय टी प्रकल्पांसाठी स्वस्त मनुष्यबळ पुरविण्याचे ठेकेदार आहेत . १९९० च्या दशकात भारतात जरी फारसे संगणकीकरण झाले नव्हते तरी परदेशातील संगणकावर अवलंबुन असणाऱ्या हजारो उद्योगांनी Y२K च्या भीतीने आपली दारे “जो मिळेल तो ” या तत्वावर ( भारता सारख्या स्वस्त मनुष्यबळ देणाऱ्या ,इंग्रजी बऱ्यापैकी माहित असलेल्या  देशांसाठी ) उघडली आणि आपल्याकडे ज्याला ज्याला  कॉम्पुटर चे बेसिक ज्ञान होते त्यांना जराश्या प्रशिक्षणाने परदेशी जायची संधी मिळू लागली . डॉलर मध्ये पगार आणि परदेशी नोकरी याचे टिपिकल मध्यमवर्गीय आकर्षण यामुळे आय टी बद्दल एक प्रकारचे वलय निर्माण झाले आणि जो तो आय टी /कॉम्पुटर “इंजिनियरिंग” मध्ये येण्यासाठी पळू लागला . मुळात या सर्व प्रकारात “इंजिनियरिंग” काहीच नव्हते .आवश्यक होते ते कोडिंग चे ज्ञान .आणि कोडिंग तर कोणीही शिकू शकतो .
आजही काही सन्माननीय अपवाद बदलता कॉम्पुटर /माहिती तंत्रन्यान क्षेत्रात मूलभूत संशोधन अथवा एखादे नवीनतम ( innovative ) उत्पादन याबाबतीत भारतीय लोकांची आणि कम्पन्यान्ची बोंबच दिसते . केवळ मायक्रोसॉफ्ट,गुगल अश्या कम्पन्याच्या प्रमुखपदी भारतीय मुळाची व्यक्ती (सत्या नाडेला /सुंदर पिचाई ) बसल्याने या वास्तवात तसूभरही फरक पडला नाहीये आणि नजीकच्या काळात पडण्याची चिन्ह सध्या तरी दिसत नाहीत . याउलट जगातील आज सर्व आघाडीच्या आय टी प्रणाली /उत्पादने ही अमेरिकन (उदा : ऍप्पल /मायक्रोसॉफ्ट / ओरॅकल ई ) अथवा युरोपियन ( उदा : एस ए पी ) कम्पन्यांनी बनवलेली दिसतात आणि या कम्पन्याची उत्पादने /प्रणाली स्वस्तात “बसवून” द्यायचे काम आमचे आय टी “कामगार” करतात . म्हणजे हा “लेबर जॉब” झाला . आणि इतिहास साक्षी आहे की असे लेबर /कामगार जॉब्स स्वस्ताई कडून अधिक स्वस्ताई कडे आणि मग यांत्रिकीकरणा ( ऑटोमेशन ) कडे जातात .भारताच्या ३००० अभियांत्रिकी विद्यालयांमधून सुमारे १५ लाख इंजिनियर्स बाहेर पडतात दर वर्षी आणि यातील ३० % मुलांना जेमतेम आज नोकरी (मग ती इंजिनीयरची असेलच असे नाही ) मिळते . याचे कारण हेच !
पूर्वी लहानपणी एक गमतीचे कोडे ऐकले  होते….राजा का आजारी पडला ? घोडा का बसला ? आणि भाकरी का करपली ? या सगळ्याचे उत्तर होते एकच : ” न फिरल्याने /फिरविल्याने ” .. तसेच ..इंजिनियर बेकार का झाले ? अभियांत्रिकी महाविद्यालये गोत्यात का आली ? आणि भारतीय IT Sector चा फुगा का फुटला ? या सर्व पप्रश्नांचे उत्तर सुद्धा एकच “नवीन शिकण्याची क्षमता आणि कौशल्य आत्मसात न केल्याने ” !

२.मग आज नक्की झालेय काय ?

भारतीय संगणक प्रशिक्षित मनुष्यबळ स्वस्त असल्याने गेली दोन दशके आपले आय टी “कामगार” परदेशी लोकांना स्थानिकांपेक्षा सहज “परवडायचे ” .आपल्याकडे मुंबई ला जसे बिहार आणि यु पी मधले मजूर बांधकाम क्षेत्रात परवडतात तसे . पण हा काळ आपल्या देशाने फक्त “आय टी महासत्ता” म्हणून खोटी कौतुके करून घेण्यात फुकट घालवला.मागणी तसा पुरवठा म्हणून भारंभार इंजिनियरिंग कॉलेजेस निघाली आणि लाखो “अभियंते” ( ! ) या फॅक्ट्रीज मधून बाहेर पडू लागले .जो पर्यंत आय टी प्रोजेक्ट्स सुरु होते आणि मनुष्यबळ गरजेचे होते तो पर्यंत हा फुगा फुटला नाही .पण गेली ५ वर्षे हा या क्षेत्राचा संक्रमणाचा काळ ठरला .
पहिला फटका :  तंत्रज्ञान बदलले .
मशीन लर्निंग , इंटरनेट ऑफ थिंग्स ,आभासी बुद्धिमत्ता ( Artificial Intelligence ) ,बिग डेटा ऍनालीटीक्स चे “सेल्फ सर्व्हिस” प्लॅटफॉर्मस आणि क्लाउड कॉम्पुटिंग इत्यादी नवीन गोष्टींनी तंत्रज्ञानाचे विश्व बदलून टाकले . आभासी बुद्धिमत्ता ,मशीन लर्निंग आणि रोबोटिक्स ने IT Sector मधले लो लेव्हल /रिपीटेटिव्ह म्हणजे टेस्टिंग /डिबगिंग /सिम्पल  प्रोग्रामिंग / सिम्पल कोड चेंजेस असे रोजगार सम्पवले. बिग डेटा आणि ऍनालीटीक्स चे प्लॅटफॉर्म्स आता अधिकाधिक सोपे होत असल्याने बिझनेस युजर्स स्वतः सेल्फ सर्व्हिस करून वापरू शकतात आणि त्याने “अनॅलिस्ट ” चे जॉब्स कमी केले .म्हणजे पहिले एक्ससेल शीट्स च्या डोंगराखाली जे काम १० लोकांची टीम एक आठवडा करायची आणि बिझनेस लीडर्स ना समजेल असे रिपोर्ट्स आणि चार्ट्स तयार करून द्यायची ,तेच काम आता स्वतः बिझनेस युजर्स स्वतः च्या आय पॅड वर ५ मिनिट्स मध्ये करू शकतात . म्हणजे जरी बिग डेटा ऍनालीटीक्स ,डेटा सायन्स हे आजही जरी “हॉट ” करियर ऑप्शन्स असले तरी त्या क्षेत्रात सुद्धा लो लेव्हल अथवा एंट्री लेव्हल नोकऱ्या कमी झाल्या आहेत .
पूर्वी अजून एक क्षेत्र IT Sector मध्ये भरपूर नोकऱ्या द्यायचे ,ते म्हणजे “हार्डवेअर ,नेटवर्क आणि सिस्टिम्स म्यानेजमेंट ” .म्हणजे ज्यांना सॉफ्टवेअर क्षेत्रात नोकरी मिळायची नाही त्यांना किमान हार्डवेअर म्यानेजमेंट अथवा नेटवर्क /  डेटा सेंटर म्यानेजमेंट अश्या नोकऱ्या मिळायच्या.आता क्लाउड कॉम्पुटिंग मुळे ते रोजगार सुद्धा कमी होत आहेत.कारण हल्ली प्रत्येक छोट्या मोठ्या कम्पनी ला स्वतः चे हार्डवेअर घेऊन आपल्या डेटा सेंटर मध्ये चालविण्यापेक्षा बहुराष्ट्रीय कम्पन्यांनी जगभर सुरु केलेल्या क्लाउड डेटा सेंटर्स मध्ये आपली सॉफ्टवेअर्स चालविणे सोपे आणि किफायती झाले आहे .त्यामुळे या मॉडेल मध्ये हे सर्व हार्डवेअर आणि सिस्टीम म्यानेजमेंट चे जॉब्स ऍमेझॉन ,गुगल,आय बी एम ,मायक्रोसॉफ्ट अश्या तगड्या क्लाउड कम्पन्यांकडे शिफ्ट झाले आहेत.आणि तिकडेही ऑटोमेशन झाल्याने अक्खे १०००० सर्व्हर्स चे डेटा सेंटर फक्त  ३-४ माणसे आरामात चालवू शकतात . एका डेटा सेंटर मध्ये किमान १००० ते कमाल ५००० कम्पन्या आपले वर्कलोड चालवू शकतात .त्यामुळे हेच सर्व्हर्स जर प्रत्येक ग्राहकाने ( कम्पनीनें) आपलं स्वतः विकत घेतले असते आणि चालवले असते  ,तर किमान १००० ते कमाल १००००  लोकांना विकेंद्रित रोजगार मिळाला असता . म्हणजे किती रोजगार नवीन तंत्रज्ञानानाने खाऊन टाकले हे भयावह आहे .
आपल्या देशातून हजारो इंजिनियर्स फ्रेशर्स म्हणून कम्पनी जॉईन करायचे तेव्हा त्यांना अपेक्षित ट्रेनिंग द्यायला वेळ आणि पैसे लागत असल्याने ,वाट पहाण्यापेक्षा ,त्यांना कम्पन्या अश्या लो लेव्हल कामास जुंपायच्या आणि त्यावरही बॉडी शॉपिंग करून बक्कळ पैसे कमवायच्या . म्हणजे आपला बंडू आणि बबडी जायची अमेरिकेला “इंजिनियर” म्हणून पण करायची दिवसभर सॉफ्टवेअर  टेस्टिंग चे काम जे आता रोबो आणि आभासी बुद्धिमत्ता असलेली मशिन्स करू शकतात . मूलभूत संशोधन आणि इनोव्हेशन न झाल्याने भारतीय आय टी कम्पन्या आता डायनोसॉर झाल्या आहेत . आणि त्याहून कालबाहय झाली आहेत ती आपली अभियांत्रिकी महाविद्यालये आणि त्यांचे जुनाट  अभ्यासक्रम ! आज मुलांना IT Sector मध्ये डिग्री घेऊन सुद्धा आहेत त्या नोकऱ्या सुद्धा मिळत नाहीत कारण त्यांनी ४ वर्षे शिकलेले ज्ञान टाकाऊ झालेले असते . जग आज रुबी /पायथन /डॉकर कंटेनर्स / नोड जे एस /मोंगो डीबी /कलाऊडन्ट/बिग क्वेरी /अपाचे हाडुप /स्पार्क आणि API लायब्ररी इत्यादी कन्सेप्ट्स वापरून प्रोग्रामिंग करत असताना आपल्या अभ्यासक्रमात अजूनही शिकविले काय जाते ? तर जावा आणि C ++ ! मी व्यवसायाचा भाग म्हणून काही इंजिनियरिंग महाविद्यालयात मार्गदर्शन करण्यासाठी जातो तसेच बऱ्याच विद्यार्थ्यांशी बोलतो ,आणि ज्या पातळीवर तिकडे जे काही चालते आणि आज इंडस्ट्री ला काय हवे आहे यात जमीन अस्मानाचा फरक आहे .अर्थात काही कॉलेजेस मध्ये अपवादाने एखाद्या प्राध्यापकाच्या स्वतः च्या पुढाकारातून चांगले काही नवीन कोर्सेस सुरु झालेले आहेतही .पण ९० % कॉलेजेस अजूनही मागे आहेत

दुसरा फटका : ग्लोबलायझेशन चा फुगा फुटला :

विसाव्या शतकाच्या अखेरीस असे म्हटले जाऊ लागले की इंटरनेट , IT Sector आणि आऊटसोर्सिंग च्या व्यापक प्रसारामुळे जग जवळ आले आहे आणि यापुढे जग अधिकाधिक “ग्लोबल” बाजारपेठ होईल .थॉमस फ्रीडमन सारख्या प्रख्यात लेखकाने “वर्ल्ड इज फ्लॅट ” सारखे बेस्टसेलर पुस्तक याच काळात लिहिले . पण आज परिस्थिती पहाता ,जागतिक पातळीवर उजव्या विचारसरणी च्या राजवटी अधिकाधिक सत्तेवर येऊ लागल्या आहेत .त्यामुळे बाहेरच्या लोकांना नोकऱ्या देणे म्हणजे अश्या राजवटी ज्या स्वप्नाळू राष्ट्रवाद आणि देशभक्ती च्या आभासी डोलाऱ्यावर उभ्या असतात त्यांना आवाहन देणे असे वाटू लागले आहे .आज जगभर विशेतः पाश्चात्य राष्ट्रात “बाहेरच्या” लोकांबद्दल तिरस्कार वाढतो आहे आणि “हे भारतीय आणि चिनी आले कमी पगारावर काम करायला आणि आपल्या पोटावर पाय द्यायला ” अशी भावना वाढीस लागली आहे .अगदी महाराष्ट्रामध्ये काही राजकीय पक्ष उत्तर भारतीय आणि दाक्षिणात्य कष्टकरी जनते विरुद्ध जसा विखार पसरवतात तसेच हे . त्यामुळे आज परदेशी कम्पन्यांवर त्यांनी  आपले आय टी प्रोजेक्ट्स भारतीय आय टी कम्पन्यांना देऊ नये असा दबाव वाढतो आहे .
परदेशी व्यक्तींना देण्यात येणाऱ्या वर्क व्हिसा चे नियम सुद्धा कडक झाल्याने नाईलाजाने भारतीय आय टी कम्पन्यांना त्या त्या देशातील स्थानिक नागरिकांना नोकऱ्या द्याव्या लागत आहेत आणि त्यामुळे आपल्या भारतीय “फॅक्टरी ” मधून बी.ई .झालेल्या ” इंजिनियर “कामगारांना कॅम्पस प्लेसमेंट सुद्धा मिळणे मुश्किल झाले आहे .

३.मग आता करायचे काय ?

कुठलेही क्षेत्र हे प्रवाही असते आणि त्या त्या क्षेत्रात होणाऱ्या बदलांचे आकलन आणि अंगीकार करणे हे स्पर्धेत टिकून राहण्यासाठी गरजेचे असते . आंधळेपणाने पालकांनी आपल्या मुलांना सरसकट कॉम्प्युटर आणि आय टी इंजिनियर बनवायच्या फॅक्टरी मध्ये टाकले तर भ्रमनिरास होण्याची शक्यता जास्त ! Information Technology Sector बुडालेले नाही पण त्यात उपलब्ध होणाऱ्या रोजगाराचे प्रकार आणि त्याला लागणारी कौशल्य आणि लागणारी माणसांची संख्या या गोष्टी बदलल्या आहेत . तसेच केवळ परदेशी जाण्याचे तिकीट म्हणून आय टी कडे पाहू नये
.आज जगात भारत ही सर्वात वेगाने वाढणारी दुसऱ्या क्रमांकाची अर्थव्यवस्था आहे . आपल्या देशाला प्रगती मध्ये अजून खूप पल्ला गाठायचा आहे .त्यामुळे शेती ,लघु आणि मध्यम उद्योग ,पायाभूत क्षेत्र ,डिजिटल इंडिया आणि अश्या अनेक गोष्टींसाठी संगणकीकरण आणि आय टी सोल्युशन्स ची गरज लागणारच आहे . पण पूर्वीसारखे ऑन साईट मिळणारा  “इझी डॉलर मनी ” आणि इकडे देशात त्याच वेळी दणक्यात मिळणारा भारतीय रुपयामधला पगार या गोष्टी आता असणार नाहीत . थातुर मातुर खाजगी इंजिनियरिंग कॉलेज मधून पाट्या टाकून इंजिनियर झालेल्या मुलांना नोकरी लागणे सोडाच पण साधे कोणी इंटरव्हू ला सुद्धा बोलावणार नाही .
एकोणिसाव्या शतकात झालेल्या औद्योगिक क्रांती ने जुने रोजगार सम्पवले पण नवीन रोजगार सुद्धा निर्माण केले ! फक्त ज्यांनी त्याच्याशी जुळवून घेतले ते तगले .विसाव्या शतकाच्या मध्यात सुरु झालेल्या संगणकीकरणा मुळे आपले आयुष्य आमूलाग्र बदलले आणि परत काही जुने रोजगार सम्पवले पण नवीन रोजगार निर्माण सुद्धा केले .आय टी सोल्युशन्स मुळे कुठल्याही उद्योगाची  उत्पादकता आणि गुणात्मकता वाढते . म्हणजे बँकांचे संगणकीकरण झाल्याने काही लोकांच्या नोकऱ्या नक्की कमी झाल्या पण त्याच वेळी कोअर बँकिंग च्या नेटवर्क मुळे बँकाच्या शाखा सुद्धा अधिक सुरु करता आल्या आणि त्यामुळे त्या क्षेत्रात त्या प्रमाणात अधिक रोजगार निर्माण झाले . देशातील १९९१ च्या आर्थिक उदारीकरणांनंतर  तर वर नमूद केल्याप्रमाणे आपल्या देशातील एक अक्खी पिढी Information Technology Sector क्षेत्रात घुसली ! म्हणजे कालानुरूप रोजगार नष्ट होतात आणि नवीन क्षेत्र उदयास येते .
शेवटचा अतिशय महत्वाचा मुद्दा म्हणजे Information Technology Sector तेव्हाच वाढू शकेल जेव्हा इतर उद्योग आणि व्यवसायांची वाढ होईल ! म्हणजे जास्त बँका वाढल्या तर त्याला लागणाऱ्या संगणक प्रणाली वाढतील,पायाभूत क्षेत्र वाढले तर स्मार्ट सिटीज साठी आय टी लागेलच  ,जास्त विमानकम्पन्या सुरु झाल्या तर एअरपोर्ट आणि एअरलाईन क्षेत्रात आय टी ची जास्त गरज लागेल ,जास्त उत्पादन उद्योग सुरु झाले तर ERP सारख्या सॉफ्टवेअर्स ना मागणी वाढेल ,जास्त मीडिया कम्पनीज सुरु झाल्या तर त्यांना लागणारे VFX /Animation इत्यादी रोजगार निर्माण होतील …वगैरे वगैरे…त्यामुळे या सर्व क्षेत्राला सुद्धा वाढण्यासाठी प्रशिक्षित मनुष्यबळ हवे आहे ! मग आपल्या मुलाला अथवा मुलीला इंजिनियरिंग करायचेच असेल तर मेकॅनिकल /सिव्हिल/इलेक्ट्रिकल असे मूलभूत इंजिनियरिंग का करू नये ?
बँकिंग/मीडिया मध्ये का त्याने करियर करू नये ?
आय टी च करायचे तर चाकोरीबद्ध बी ई च्या डिग्री च्या मागे लागण्यापेक्षा बेसिक ग्रॅज्युएशन करता करता साईड बाय साईड डेटा सायन्स /क्लाउड/मशीन लर्निंग अश्या नवीन क्षेत्रात स्पेशलाइज्ड कोर्सेस का करू नयेत ?
सरकार मध्ये सुद्धा डिजिटल इंडिया मोहीम सुरु आहे मग आपल्या बबडी ने आय ए एस होऊन आय टी चा विधायक वापर करून सरकारी योजनांचे संगणकीकरण करवून घेण्याचे स्वप्न का पाहू नये ?
आणि नोकरीच का ..स्वतः चा स्टार्ट अप सुरु करण्याचे प्रयत्न सुद्धा करू नयेत ?
एव्हढे सगळे करियर ऑप्शन्स उपलब्ध असताना केवळ Information Technology Sector मध्ये नोकरी करून अमेरिकेला जाण्याचे टिपिकल मराठी मध्यमवर्गीय स्वप्न आपण का पहातोय?
मुलांना काय आवडते आणि त्यांना कशात गती आहे याचा विचार आपण कधी करणार ?
वाचा आणि विचार करा ! पटल्यास सर्व मराठी पालकांना हा लेख पाठवा .
धन्यवाद
Bigthoughts.co has published this article on behalf of the unknown author who is assumed to be from Information Technology Sector. We believe that it’s an accurate statement on current I.T. industry. We are giving special thanks to this unknown author for writing such an effective, eyeopening article on Information Technology Sector.
For more such articles on IT & Technology, please visit our Technology section.

Business Analyst Certification – PMI Professional in Business Analysis (PMI-PBA)


Overview of PMI Professional in Business Analysis (PMI-PBA)

Business analysis has become a critical competency important to project management. Becoming certified as a Business Analyst can move your career in a fresh direction in business analysis field while opportunities for BAs are on the rise.

Inaccurate requirements gathering has been consistently ranking in the top 3 causes of the project failure yet only half of organizations have the business analyst resources in place to perform this function properly, according to PMI’s Pulse of the Profession® research.

It’s time to become the certified expert your organization needs. If you work with stakeholders in defining requirements, shaping project outputs and driving intended business outcomes, the PMI Professional in Business Analysis (PMI-PBA)® will spotlight your valuable skills.


Who Should Apply to Business Analyst certification?

It is suitable for the professionals who work with project teams and manage requirements or product development. It is also suitable for a project or program manager who performs business analysis in his role.

Prerequisites

  • Secondary degree (diploma, associate degree or
  • 7500 hrs. of business analysis work experience
  • 2000 hrs. working on project teams*
  • 35 contact hrs of learning in business analysis

OR

  • Bachelor degree or global equivalent
  • 4500 hrs of business analysis experience
  • 2,000 hrs working on project teams*
  • 35 contact hrs of learning in business analysis

*Project work experience can include business analysis work experience. A current PMP® or PgMP® satisfies the requirement but is not mandatory for the PMI-PBA.

Exam Pattern

  • Certification exam has 200 multiple choice questions and 4 hrs are allotted to complete it.

Continue Holding Credential

  • To continuing holding your credential, you have to earn 60 professional development units (PDUs) in business analysis topics every 3 years.

Exam Price

PMI Member: US$405.00
PMI Non-member: US$555.00

For more articles on project management, please visit our Project Management Section.

Communication Skills Course – Agile Communications Management


Communications Management by Improving Communication Skills


Communication Skills
is one of the most fundamental values of Agile Management, although it would be more accurate to say that effective communication is what Agile Management deems critical to your success and hence communication skills development needed.

What is Communication?

With respect to Agile Management, communication is the act of transmitting information between individuals. Why is communication an issue worth discussing? Because the need to communicate effectively pervades software development, operations, and support. Developers and users must communicate. Developers and operations staff must communicate. Developers and management must communicate. Developers and … well, you get the idea. So it’s important to develop communication skills.

communication skills

Communications Planning

PMI Definition: Determining the information and communication needs of the projects stakeholders

When Agile teams talk about communications, they are usually talking about communications within the team. Agile puts a great deal of emphasis on the free flow of information between team members, between team members and the product owner, and even between the team and the direct customer. In some ways, the Agile community has really abstracted the entire stakeholder community behind the role of Product Owner.

Communication between team members, and between the team and its customers, is essential but it is not the only component of communication that must be planned. Sometimes there are other stakeholders that we must take into consideration.

At the team level, we usually deal with team member communication through collocation, whiteboards, wikis, and other rich and collaborative workspace. Agile teams trade a great deal of written documentation for these more osmotic forms of information exchange. On a small team with a single customer, it might be sufficient to suggest that customers get all the information they need from attending planning meetings, daily stand-ups, and iteration reviews.

When there is more than one stakeholder, or possibly a hierarchy of stakeholders , sometimes it is not sufficient to suggest that these stakeholders come down to the team room and check out the team’s progress on the Kanban board. Sometimes we need to do some roll-up reporting across a portfolio of projects or even programs. Sometimes we need to report status at a much higher level of abstraction for a more senior audience.

The key to planning communications on an Agile project is to follow the principle of simplicity. Don’t write documentation for the sake of documentation. Find out what your stakeholders really need and provide it as quickly and as simply as possible. Make use of natural information sources that the team is already producing (task boards, burndown charts, architectural representations) and create documentation that enables your business to make decisions.

Keep things light, go for face to face whenever possible, and when your stakeholders require more; make things as simple, clear, and accurate as possible. Communications planning is a very important communication skills.


Information Distribution

PMI Definition: Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner

Agile teams keep their status up to date using large, visible information radiators that everyone in the team room has access to and can update themselves. These repositories of information are there for the team to know where it is at all times and so they can manage their work. The side effect of these radiators for the Project Manager is that you have instant access to real time information about the health of the project, release, or iteration.

Often, design and architecture will be worked out on whiteboards and then minimally documented on a Wiki or Sharepoint so they can be easily changed as we learn more about the evolving system. Agile teams lean toward lightweight artifacts and central, universally accessible document repositories. Agile teams recognize that the only truly accurate representation of the product is the code itself ; therefore documentation is kept light and at a pretty high level.

Sometimes a customer has a need for more detailed documentation to manage an external dependency or possibly an audit requirement. In these cases, that increased level of documentation is built into the estimate for the feature. Documentation is not free and it will slow down the creation of working software.

The key once again is to figure out what is the minimum amount of documentation needed to satisfy the requirement. Document systems at the highest level of abstraction you can get away with. Make sure you understand the information needs of the external stakeholder, make sure that work is represented in the backlog, and that it is prioritized to meet the needs of the organization.

Use the same collaborative techniques you would use to build features to create the documentation required by the business. So you can see it is very important to acquire this communication skills too.

Performance Reporting

PMI Definition: Collecting and distributing performance information. This includes status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting

Burn down charts and Kanban boards are tools that a team will use to organically manage their work and make sure they are on track. As an Agile project manager is your responsibility to help the team and encourage that these tools are kept up to date. For the most part, these are the only tools you will need to understand the health of your project, and you largely get them for free.

Performance on Agile projects is pretty simple. You know how big your backlog is and you know how much you are able to complete each iteration. Based on these two variables you are able to predict how many features you will be able to complete before the end of the project, release, or iteration. Most of the Agilists like to keep a high level project road map that helps me understand where the project is expected to be at certain points as it progresses to completion. This is also useful for managing external dependencies.

These simple tools help you understand what progress you are making against expectations and if you’ll need to extend the release, adjust scope, or request additional funding. Since you are an agile team, you’ll more than likely be communicating how early you’ll be, how much more you’ll be able to do, and how much more value you’ve delivered to the organization.

Either way, you have a tremendous amount of information at your disposal to communicate project to the project stakeholders. Think EVM based on delivery of working product.


Manage Stakeholders

PMI Definition: Managing communications to satisfy the requirements and resolve issues with project stakeholders.

Managing stakeholders is really about managing the issues that come up during the life of the project. A significant benefit of Agile is that nothing is hidden. This level of visibility gives the project manager the information they need to resolve problems and remove impediments.

Issues can arise during iteration planning, execution, close-down, or just in the course of day to day work. Just like on any project, these need to get tracked and dealt with as soon as possible. Issues are reviewed during the daily stand-up meetings and retrospectives.

There are always going to be some issues that cannot be dealt with by the team. Typically it is advisable to hold a weekly or bi-weekly meeting with senior stakeholders where they get a distillation of significant impediments and what we need them to do to help us resolve the issue.

Agile Communication Environment

This communications-integration software platform abstracts and exposes complex multi-vendor communications capabilities as standard Web Services to simplify Unified Communications integration with business applications and processes, and deliver enhanced business agility and productivity.

Avaya Agile Communication Environment (ACE) is a software platform that simplifies the process of integrating multi-vendor communications systems with business applications through a suite of packaged and custom applications, a powerful IT developer toolkit, and multi-vendor communications adapters.

Applications that would have taken weeks or months to develop by specialist telecommunications developers can now be created easily by standard IT developers in a matter of days. Organizations can improve business agility and competitiveness by using Avaya ACE to minimize delays within communication-dependent business processes. The ACE application is integrated on IBM’s Websphere, runs on the Linux RedHat OS and is supported on IBM 3550 servers.
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Project Management Professional (PMP) Certification from PMI


Overview of Project Management Professional (PMP)

Project Management Professional (PMP) is the most important industry-recognized certification for project managers.

One can find PMPs leading projects in almost every country unlike other certifications which focus on certain geographies or domains. This makes PMP®  certification truly global. With PMP, you virtually can work in  any industry, with any methodology and in any location.

It can also provide a significant advantage when it comes to salary and earning potential. Among survey respondents to PMI’s Earning Power Salary Survey, those with this certification garner a higher salary (20% higher on average) than those without this certification.*

Employers benefit as well. When more than one-third of their project managers are PMP-certified, organizations complete more of their projects on time, on budget and meeting original goals. (Pulse of the Profession® study, PMI, 2015.)

The PMP signifies that you speak and understand the global language of project management and connects you to a community of professionals, organizations and experts worldwide. Become a PMP and become a project hero.

*Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey Ninth Edition


Who Should Apply?

It is for experienced project manager responsible for all aspects of  the project delivery, directing and leading the cross-functional teams.

Prerequisites

  • Secondary degree (diploma, associate degree, or global equivalent)
  • 7,500 hrs. of leading and directing projects
  • 35 hrs of project management training

OR

  • 4 year degree
  • 4500 hrs. of leading and directing projects
  • 35 hrs. of project management training

Exam Pattern

  • Certification exam has 200 multiple choice questions and three and half (3.5) hours are allotted to complete it.

Continue Holding Credential

  • To continuing holding your credential, you have to earn 60 professional development units (PDUs) in project management topics every 3 years.

Exam Price

PMI Member: US$405.00
PMI Non-member: US$555.00

For more articles on project management, please visit our Project Management Section.

Project Management Institute’s Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP)


PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP)

PMI RMP certification helps identifying the demonstrated expertise and knowledge in the specialized area of assessment and identification of the project risks.

PIM-RMP

Overview of PMI-RMP Certification

  • PMI-RMP certification is designed to give aspirants a professional qualification in project risk management
  • PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP)® credential is in response to the project management field’s increasing growth, complexity and diversity
  • As it is recognized and demanded globally, this certification caters to the need for a specialized role in the project risk management
  • This credential helps to recognize individual’s unique expertise and competency in doing assessment and identification of the project risks, mitigation of the threats and capitalizing on the opportunities, while at the same time possessing basic skills in most of the project management areas

Benefits to An Individual

  • Developing and applying the Benefits Realization Plan
  • Establishing programme consistency across projects
  • Establishing better alliances and collaboration with other departments and organizations
  • Helps in identifying and assigning program roles and responsibilities to team members
  • Helps in working with and motivating the project team members
  • Understanding and better utilizing the Project Management Information System (PMIS)

Benefits to the Organisation

  • Better alignment of programs and projects to the organization’s strategic goals
  • Improved operational capacity of the enterprise to deliver on the proposed programs and projects
  • Change impact and capacity of the enterprise to absorb the results if the programs and projects are successfully executed
  • Helps in ensuring that the enterprise realizes the desired organization benefits of the strategic investments it made


Prerequisites

  • Secondary degree (diploma, associate degree, or global equivalent)
  • 4500 hours of project risk management work experience
  • 40 hours of project risk management learning

OR

  • 4 year degree (bachelor degree or global equivalent)
  • 3000 hours of project risk management work experience
  • 30 hours of project risk management learning

Exam Pattern

  • Certification exam has 170 multiple choice questions and 3.5 hours are allotted to complete it.

Continuing Your PMI-RMP

  • To continuing holding your PMI-RMP credential, you have to earn 30 professional development units (PDUs) in risk management topics every 3 years.

Exam Price

PMI Member: US$520.00
PMI Non-member: US$670.00

For more articles on project management, please visit our Project Management Section.

PMI CAPM – PMI Certified Associate in Project Management


PMI – CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management)

Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) is one of the important globally recognized credentials in the field of Project Management offered by Project Management Institute (PMI).

Why CAPM

  • Many organizations today have a new or renewed interest in project management.
  • Computer hardware, software, networks, and the use of interdisciplinary and global work teams have radically changed the work environment.
  • Generally IT Projects have a terrible track record.
  • Only approx 16% of the IT projects were successful in meeting scope, time and cost goals.
  • Passing exam and obtaining the CAPM credential demonstrates your commitment to the project management excellence.
  • Globally recognized project management certification.
  • Worldwide recognition of your project management knowledge.
  • Improves project management skills.
  • Displays your knowledge of best practices in project management.
  • Enhances customer confidence.
  • Global companies like Infosys, TCS, L & T, Sun Microsystems and many more value CAPM & PMP professionals.
Advantages of using Formal Project Management
  • Lower costs and avoiding cost overruns.
  • Better control of Resources.
  • Improved Client Relationships.
  • Shorter Development Time.
  • Higher Profit.
  • Improved Productivity.
  • Higher Motivation.
  • Higher Quality and Increased Reliability.
  • Better Internal/External Communications.


Roadmap to CAPM

Eligibility

Secondary degree

And

[Minimum of 1,500 hours of project experience

Or

23 hours of project management education]

Certification Process

PMI CAPM

Certification Fees

CAPM - Fees


Exam Syllabus

  • Project Management Processes for a Project (15%)
  • Project Integration Management (12%)
  • Project Scope Management (11%)
  • Project Time Management (12%)
  • Project Cost Management (7%)
  • Project Quality Management (6%)
  • Project Human Resource Management (8%)
  • Project Communications Management (6%)
  • Project Risk Management (9%)
  • Project Procurement Management (7%)
  • Project Stakeholder Management (7%)

The exam consists of 150 multiple-choice questions with four answers per choice.

The exam must be completed in three hours.

 

PMI Preparation Strategy

  • Read PMBOK 5.0
  • Read additional preparation guides
  • Practice using Mock tests to boost your confidence  to achieve magic score. There are many exam simulation software available.

For more project management related articles, visit our Project Management Articles Section

Business Objects Interview Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and Answers


Business Objects Interview Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and Answers

Heading for an interview for Business Objects, then go through these frequently asked questions and answers on Business Objects.

  • Explain detail objects?

Detail objects are attached to dimensions, one cannot drill on details nor link on details when linking multiple data providers. While Customer ID would be a dimension, customer name, address, phone and soon should be details.

  • What is BOMain.Key?

BoMain.Key file contains the information about the repository site i.e it contains the address of the repository security domain.

  • What is Business objects Repository?

It is nothing but metadata.

  • What is domain? How many are there in a basic setup? What are they?

Domain is nothing but logical grouping of system tables, There are three domains usually in a basic setup, They are Secure, Universe, Document. Business objects are sometimes called domain objects (where the word domain means the business), and a domain model represents the set of domain objects and the relationships between them.

  • When is the Repository created?

In 5i/6i versions after installing the software, whereas in Xi version a repository is created at the time of installation.

  • Can we have multiple domains?

Yes. (Security domain can not be multiple).

  • How do you restrict access to rows of a database?

In XI version it can be done by using row-level security in designer module whereas in 5i/6i it is done by supervisor.

  • What is a category?

It is nothing but grouping of certain entities.

  • What is a Universe?

It is a semantic layer between Database and the designer used to create objects and classes. (It maps to data in Database).

  • What is an Object?

It is an instance of class, its nothing but an entity.

  • What do you mean by Object qualification?

Object qualification represents what kind of object is that, usually we have three types of object qualifiers they are measure, dimension, detailed.

  • What is the size of data base?

In general it will be anything between 4-8 Terabytes.

  • What is a loop? How can we overcome?

Loop is nothing but a closed circular flow; it can be overcome by making use of Alias and Context.

  • What is a join? Explain different types of joins?

Join is used to link to tables depending upon the data requested by the user, Usually we have Inner Join, Outer Join, Left Join, Right Join, Full Outer join.

  • What are Linked Universes?

If the data provided is from two different data providers then we can link those two universes, such type of universe is called Linked Universe.

  • What are Alerter, Filters, Breaks and Conditions?

Alters are nothing but they are used to draw attention to a block of data by highlighting. Breaks are nothing but grouping the data without any change in the format. Condition is used to retrieve data which meets certain criteria. Filters are used to get necessary data.

  • What is the difference between master-detail and Breaks?

In break common fields are deleted (here in this case the table format is not changed) whereas in master-detail , we declare certain entity as a master to get the detailed information or report in this case the table format is changed.

business objects

  • What is metrics?

Metrics are a system of parameters or ways of quantitative and periodic assessment of a process that is to be measured; these are used to track trends, productivity.

  • What is a Set?

Its nothing but grouping of users.

  • What is the use of AFD? Where it can be stored?

Used to create dashboards. It can be stored in repository, corporate or personal.

  • What is the source for metrics?



measure objects.

  • Why do we need metrics and sets?

Metrics are used for analysis and Sets are used for grouping.

  • Is there any bug in 6.x?

In earlier version of 6.0 they had, but 6.5 is the best version with out any bugs.

  • What are the general issues in migration process?

Alignment, performance.

  • What is the use of BO SDK?

Bo SDK main use is to suppress “no data to fetch” using Macros.

  • How can we improve performance?

By making use of Aggregate tables.

  • Analysis in BO?

Slice-Dice and Drill analysis.

  • How can you check the integrity?

By making use of Check integrity button.

  • What are Universe parameters?

Name of the universe, description and RDBMS connection, size and rights.

  • Types of Universes?

Simple and Complex.

  • What is the use of BCA?

BCA is used to refresh and schedule and export and save as.html,.rtf,.xls ,.pdf.

If you are interested in reading more articles like Business Objects Interview Questions, then please visit Career Guidance section.

SAP ABAP Interview Questions – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


SAP ABAP Interview Questions

Getting ready for interview on SAP ABAP technology skills, then please have a look at these frequently asked questions (FAQs) on SAP ABAP technical skills.

sap abap

  • How do you call SAP script in reports & reports in SAP script?
  • What is different between SAP script & reports?
  • What is stack?
  • What is the defination of ALE RFC?
  • Why is BAPI required? How about BDC?
  • What happens if I use control break statement in between select & endselect?
  • What is lock Object
  • SAP Versions
  • SAP Platforms
  • SAP Processes
  • SAP Modules
  • SAP Table Name Standard
  • SAP Vendors
  • SAP Certification
  • What is SQL Trace, how would you carry out performance analysis of ABAP code using SQL Trace? Give the steps?
  • What are the transactions we should use in BDC? How do we use it?
  • How would you use BDC program to transfer material master record using MM01 transaction? Give me steps.
  • Could we use ME21N transaction, and XK01 transaction, either which one of the transaction, or could we use both the transactions for creating purchase information.
  • What is the name of the standard report that gives the deatails of Customer and sales amount?
  • How can we use XD02 transaction to change the customer data for updating KNA1 table? Give the steps.
  • How the transaction ME21N is used for to upload the purchase order in BDC?
  • How many transaction we can used in BDC at a time?
  • How the data get updated in BDC using transaction.
  • Why BAPI need then BDC?
  • What happen if I use controll break statement in between select  endselect?
  • What is lock Object?
  • Select option works like _____________ on Selection Screen?
  • Which sysgtem variable have current value during execution?
  • What is the main point while using controll bareak in internal table?
  • Waht is Field sysmbol?
  • Smartform uses wisely then selection screen, why?
  • Which one is not an exit comand? (Exit, cencle, stop, back)
  • Which component gives you better visibility? (pritty Printer)
  • Explain about roll area, Dispatcher, ABAP-Processor.
  • What is the final entry in BDC Table?
  • How can I get output on same page?
  • Why is Transaction Varient needed?
  • If I have table control, what is the same code in PBO and PAI?
  • Who takes care of passing the data to the application server?

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Culinary Arts Jobs – Guide to build successful Career in Culinary Arts.


The growth of Culinary Arts careers and therefore the cookery faculties that prepare such seasoned leaders is big. Chefs, cooks, and food preparation staff within the cookery field crossed 12 million mark by 2006 itself.

Get your instruction for fulfillment at cookery faculties to build your career in Culinary Arts field. There, you’ll be able to earn the degree you wish to achieve professions inside cookery, baking, restaurant, pastry arts, and different connected careers.In the past decade, edifice Management has gained sizable quality as a career. Earlier, most edifice managers were those that had learnt their skills on the duty, and opportunities additionally were few. The business enterprise boom opened out several avenues, in hotels, resorts, time share organizations, tour operators, and guest homes. cordial reception is currently recognized as a definite space of experience, with a substantial quantity of glamour and show.

The glamour and 5 star ambiance have attracted several to the sector, however sadly several entrants don’t notice that it’s knowledgeable course requiring a good deal of experience and glamour forms only a little part of the profession. One must bear in mind that the mushrooming of faculties has created a surplus and plenty of students, significantly from faculties that don’t seem to be connected to a purported edifice cluster, might have “not a sleek sail” finding employment. Most of the colleges supply a 3 year BHM (Bachelor of edifice Management), that is probably going to be reborn into a four year course before long. Some supply diplomas, native furthermore as together with Swiss or yankee establishments, and a few others supply specialised courses in specific departments of the cordial reception trade. The 3 major edifice chains of the country have their own colleges’ viz. Welcomgroup, The Taj, and therefore the Oberoi. These supply tempting career opportunities.

Culinary Arts

The Work

Catering & Restaurant Management

Within the Catering & Restaurant Management program, you will gain information that may profit you as you pursue management positions inside the food industry. work focuses on communications, leadership, management, human resources, technology, accounting, marketing, monetary management, and client relations. Graduates get ready to hunt entry-level employment like restaurant manager or catering manager in restaurants, hospitals, cruise ships, and banquet facilities.

Cookery Management

In this stream of Culinary Arts field, you may gain sensible expertise within the room whereas finding out the business of value management, sanitation and safety, menu and drinkable management, nutrition, and room management. you will learn to arrange food quickly and in amount whereas operating with others.

Baking & Pastry

Within the Baking & Pastry program, you will gain active baking skills. stress is placed on elementary pastry and bread-baking techniques, additionally to general-purpose baking, desserts, cake decoration, and pastry arts. to enrich your cookery techniques, you will learn essential thinking and business necessities. Graduates square measure ready to hunt entry-level employment like line cook and storage room cook.

Bar Management

If you’re yearning for a remarkable and exciting career, bartending might fill that require. Bartending permits you to satisfy folks whereas creating cash. A bartending career permits you the chance to figure full time, half time or temporary. Bartending is one amongst the few job skills forever in demand, and moveable worldwide. will|you’ll|you’ll be able to} become a aptitude bartender/ bar manager/ bar instructor/ drinkable job manager otherwise you can open your own bar.

Employment Opportunities

Hotels keep recruiting Managers, Chefs and different skilled positions and usually experience. Hotels nowadays merrily use students and children to fill their temporary or seasonal positions with very little or no expertise of operating during a edifice. Entrepreneurship is one amongst the foremost followed path. folks usually come back up with theme restaurants and cafeterias creating landmarks! What it takes? to form an honest cordial reception manager, one must have sensible social and communication skills, neatness and a satisfying temperament. Having creativeness and an aesthetic sense helps. One ought to be ready to get together with folks from various backgrounds and handle conflict things.

Work might need long and unconventional hours, and an intermission of family and social life.Those change of integrity courses in edifice management currently ought to bear in mind of the fierce competition for jobs in sensible hotels. It helps if one is willing to travel on the far side the BHM and complete either an Master in Business or a specialised credentials.

What you will make?

As one terribly successful administrator remarked “beneath the suit and tie could be a ton of perspiration and a good deal of donkey work that needs to be through with a smile. however i will be able to not exchange this life for the routine of a nine to five workplace job ever.”

The business enterprise trade in India is growing fantastically gap numerous avenues. skilled cordial reception jobs give you to be Managers, Head Chefs, 2nd Chefs, Cook, Head bartender, Wine Waiters, baker etc. gap your own specialty building may be a good business!

Where to study?

Entry to high faculties is troublesome. Entrance tests and interviews is that the procedure followed. The fee for Culinary Arts course tends to be on the higher side, averaging one lakh annually. Taking admissions to native institutes is less complicated.

Some of the foremost favored courses:

  • PG Diploma/Certificate Course in Hotel Catering Management
  • PG Diploma/Certificate Course in Food Production
  • PG Diploma/Certificate Course in Food & Beverages
  • PG Diploma/Certificate Course in Restaurant & Counter Service
  • PG Diploma/ Certificate course in Bakery Science & Management
  • BSc in Catering Technology & Hotel Management
  • Advance credentials in cookery Arts & bakeshop Studies

If you are interested in reading more articles like Culinary Arts, then please visit Career Guidance section.

Veterinarian Jobs – How to build a successful career as Veterinarian?


If you like animals and obtain affected to visualize them in pain, this could be a frenzied career possibility for you! If you prefer animals and science, you may need to be a doc. Veterinarian pays attention of sick and blistered animals. Like doctors, they perform surgery and provides drugs.

Veterinarian

The Work

When an animal is sick, vets examine it to search out out why. they appear for clues in however the animal appearance, acts, and smells. Vets ought to look fastidiously as a result of animals cannot say what’s wrong. Veterinarian conjointly do blood tests, x-rays, and alternative tests, longing for clues regarding animal’s diseases. Vet then decides what quite drugs the animal wants. They fix broken bones, operate tumors, replace knees and hips etc. Vets stop issues by giving vaccinations and check-ups and fixing teeth. They conjointly teach house owners a way to feed and train their animals. Most vets treat little pets, as well as dogs, cats, and gerbils. however some concentrate on giant stock, like sheep, cows, and horses. some vets add zoos and aquariums. They take care of lions, rhinoceros, zebras, sharks, and alternative wild creatures.In addition to serving to sick animals, vets will work as animal inspectors, checking to form certain that livestock are healthy which their living areas ar clean. an alternative choice for vets is doing research. Vets add many alternative places. Vets conjointly do analysis add laboratories. Most vets add clinics and hospitals.

What it takes?

Somebody should have passed the upper Secondary Examination comparable to 10+2 with last a pair of years of study with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English. consecutive step is to travel to veterinary faculty for four a lot of years. entering into Vet faculty is competitive. once faculty, vets take a check and obtain a license.

After obtaining the license you’re qualified to figure with a hospital, laboratory, organization or begin your own non-public clinic.

Employment Opportunities.

• one out of five Veterinarian are freelancer and own their non-public clinics.

• Veterinarian works for hospitals, government comes, analysis corporations, prescribed drugs, universities, animal food corporations, zoos & wild life analysis & sanctuaries, media & print etc.

• Numerous NGO’s (working for animals) and social awareness campaigns conjointly need Veterinarians. What you may make?In veterinary faculty, students learn experience in animal science. They conjointly find out how to figure with animals, do surgery, and laboratory tests, victimisation advanced equipments etc.Many value more highly to specialise in a selected quite unwellness or animal. Before active severally they need to figure below toughened vets for two years. they could concentrate on surgery, dentistry, wild animals etc.Like Doctors, Veterinarians typically work long hours. Off-stream Jobs for Veterinarians.

• Animal care and repair employees

• Biological scientists

• Chiropractors, Dentists, Optometrists, Podiatrists

• Specialists, Pharmacy analysis scientists

• Veterinary technologists and technicians

Where to study?

Veterinary Council of India conducts an All India Common exam for admission to Bachelor of Veterinary Science and husbandry Course.

If you are interested in reading more such articles, then please visit Career Guidance section.