Category Archives: Career

Interview Tips – How to Crack Job Interviews Successfully?

Interview Tips to Crack Job Interviews Successfully

Following the interview tips to follow to crack the job interviews successfully:

Interview Tips
Interview Tips

Be Prepared
You must be prepared with the basic interview questions which are always asked – like your introduction, your hobbies, your interests, why should they hire you, etc. Be ready to face such questions. Practice them before your interview and try to make them interesting!

Do your homework
Always study about the company you are going to give an interview at. Know about its history and what it has to offer; what are its goals and objectives. Go through its website, press releases and data available online so that you are able to answer any questions on it.

Be on time
You must reach the company on time for the interview. Nothing looks worse than reaching late for the interview. Always try to leave early from your house and try to reach 10 minutes before the call time.

Dress up properly
As they say, your first impression is the last one. So always dress to impress. Wear crisply ironed formals, clean shoes and your hair should be neat and tied up. A nicely dressed person always tends to leave a good impression than a person who comes shabbily for the interview.

Be confident
Do not let your nervousness come up on your face. No matter how nervous you are, always look confident. A confident candidate always has a better opportunity as it shows how he can handle situations in a better way. No company wants to employ a person who is shaking due to nervousness during the interview.

Be honest and flexible
Always be honest in whatever you are being asked. Do not lie regarding any thing as it may back fire for you in the future. If you don’t know the answer to any question, say it confidently (you are not supposed to know everything and its okay). It’s better than giving wrong answers and giving a wrong impression.

Update it
Keep your CV updated and ready to be presented when asked. Your CV is the most important document which sells you to the firm. Keep it updated and make it sellable. Enhance it with all the skills you have and all that you have done in the past. Do not make the mistake of fabricating it in any way.

Be friendly
You are noticed in every way. Be friendly with other candidates, the interviewer and always keep that smile on your face; it also helps you hide away your nervousness as well. Ask questions to your interviewer about the company, your job profile, ask all doubts you have and do not make the interview one-sided.

Ask for feedback
Before the interview closes, make sure you ask the interviewer as to how it went and what are the chances of being selected (do not overdo it). It gives a positive image of the candidate as it shows his keenness towards accepting the job offer.

For more career and job related informative articles like Interview Tips, please visit our Career Section.

Certified Scrum Master (CSM) Certification Scope and Coverage

Certified Scrum Master (CSM) Certification Scope & Coverage

Certified Scrum Master (CSM) is an important certification in agile project management arena. There are few certifications for agile such as Professional Scrum Master (PSM) from and PMI’s Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP), but CSM from Scrum Alliance has been oldest of all and hence widely known and appreciated Scrum Master certification.

Certified Scrum Master (CSM)

A Certified Scrum Master (CSM) performs the following functions:

  • Aids project teams in using Scrum effectively
  • Provides expertise above that of a typical project manager
  • Acts as a ‘servant leader’ and helps the team work together and learn the Scrum framework
  • Protects the team from internal and external distractions

CSM certification has following scope and coverage. So one has to be well versed with followings terms and concepts.

Agile and Scrum Basics

  • Agile Basics
  • Agile Manifesto
  • Agile Principles
  • Agile Methods
  • Scrum Overview
  • Scrum Advantages

Scrum Roles

  • Scrum Internal and External Users
  • Product Owner
  • Scrum Development Team
  • Building Teams
  • Scrum Master and Skills
  • Other Roles

Scrum Events

  • The Sprint
  • Sprint Planning
  • Timebox
  • Daily Scrum
  • User Story
  • Sprint Review
  • Sprint Retroscpective

Scrum Artifacts

  • Scrum Product Backlog
  • Sprint Backlog
  • Increment
  • Scrum Done

Scrum Project Phases

  • Scrum Life Cycle
  • Initiate
  • Plan
  • Requirements Gathering
  • Estimation
  • Implement
  • Review
  • Release

Distributed Scrum

  • Distributed Teams
  • Distributed Communication
  • Distributed Meetings
  • Collaboration
  • Distributed Scrum Practices
  • Scaling Scrum

If you are interested in knowing more about Project Management Institute’s certifications, please read here: Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP) and Project Management Professional (PMP) certification.

Sales to Delivery Handover – Essential Project Familarisation Step

Sales to Delivery Handover – Essential Step in Successful Project Start

Sales to Delivery Handover is an important and a critical task that needs to be completed as part of the Project Familiarisation.

sales to delivery handover


Below are the key steps to follow in the Sales to Delivery Handover process:

  • Why is the project important to the client?
  • Who are the key players?
  • What is the client and our company’s vision of the project?
  • What is the planned use of offshore and onshore?
  • What is the proposal?
  • What are the main deliverables?
  • What is the significance of the project milestones?
  • What is the Client Relationship Mapping?
  • Technologies, methods, timescales?
  • Are there specific security requirements?
  • What project Risks and Issues have been identified?
  • Who was involved in the Bid?
  • Where does the project fit in the context of the Account?

For more project management related information, please visit our Project Management Section.

How to Influence People – Influence and Persuasion Techniques

How to Influence People – Influence and Persuasion Technique

how to influence peopleHow to influence people is a daunting task. It is focused on methods of verbal influence and persuasion. Careful consideration is required to make an effective case. To this end, four essential aspects must be followed. These aspects are detailed here.

Stating your objective

Stating your objective requires short, informative explanations using simple, straightforward language. This explanation should also include

  • a description of how your objective benefits the organization
  • a request for your audience’s attention
  • a demonstration of value to people as well as to the mission of the organization

Demonstrating persuasion techniques

There are several common methods of verbal persuasion.

Problem and solution is a technique that describes an existing problem and then outlines a suggested solution. This technique is best when no other solution is to be offered.

Comparative advantage compares and contrasts the benefits of two or more solutions or options. This technique is best when you wish to emphasize the superiority of your preferred solution.

Reason giving provides three to five reasons why your audience should think, feel, believe, or act the same way as you do. This technique is best when you have a lot of expertise and facts to support your position.

Motivated sequence persuades and motivates through five steps:

  • attention: describe the situation or solution you wish to achieve
  • need: explain the need for this situation or solution
  • satisfaction: explain what is required to satisfy the need
  • visualization: ask the listener to visualize the positive effect of satisfying the need
  • action: give instructions on how to effect the change.

This technique is best when you want immediate action.

Using questions

Using questions can help persuade and influence by encouraging dialogue, obtaining agreement, and guiding discussion.

Open-ended questions require more than a “yes” or “no” and encourage dialogue.

Close-ended questions require a “yes” or “no” and focus responses in order to obtain agreement.

Leading questions guide the listener by suggesting the specific desired response. For example, “If we hope to encourage customers to purchase the new version of our product, shouldn’t we provide a means for them to recycle their old versions?”

Acknowledging opposing perspectives

No matter your success with the above steps, opposition can still remain, which is often frustrating. These steps can help overcome differing perspectives.

  • Imagine the person’s position. Keep an open mind and consider the other person’s perspective.
  • Ask directly about the problem. Ask what problem or roadblocks remain in the person’s mind.
  • Agree with reservations. Agree with the other person’s perspective but reserve the right to pause the discussion if it becomes counterproductive.
  • Raise the relationship. Highlight common ground and explain the beneficial relationship that your positions share.

Hope you must have liked this article on How to influence People. For more training articles on career and personality development, you can visit our section.

Project Management Roles – Responsibilities of Project Stakeholders

Project Management – Responsibilities and Roles of Project Manager, Project Sponsor, Project Board, Project Team Members, Program Manager, Supplier side Project Manager

Project ManagementFew typical examples of the different types of roles involved in delivering a project and their respective responsibilities are mentioned below:


Project Management Title: Project Manager


The person responsible for developing, in conjunction with the Project Sponsor, a definition of the project. The Project Manager then ensures that the project is delivered on time, to budget and to the required quality standard (within agreed specifications). He/she ensures the project is effectively resourced and manages relationships with a wide range of groups (including all project contributors). The Project Manager is also responsible for managing the work of consultants, allocating and utilising resources in an efficient manner and maintaining a co-operative, motivated and successful team.


  • Managing and leading the project team.
  • Recruiting project staff and consultants.
  • Managing co-ordination of the partners and working groups engaged in project work.
  • Detailed project planning and control including:
  • Developing and maintaining a detailed project plan.
  • Managing project deliverables in line with the project plan.
  • Recording and managing project issues and escalating where necessary.
  • Resolving cross-functional issues at project level.
  • Managing project scope and change control and escalating issues where necessary.
  • Monitoring project progress and performance.
  • Providing status reports to the project sponsor.
  • Managing project training within the defined budget.
  • Liaises with, and updates progress to, project board/senior management.
  • Managing project evaluation and dissemination activities.
  • Managing consultancy input within the defined budget.
  • Final approval of the design specification.
  • Working closely with users to ensure the project meets business needs.
  • Definition and management of the User Acceptance Testing programme.
  • Identifying user training needs and devising and managing user training programmes.
  • Providing regular status reports to the IPSC Programme Board.


Project Management Title: Project Sponsor


The person who commissions others to deliver the project and champions the cause throughout the project. They will normally be a senior member of staff with a relevant area of responsibility that will be affected by the outcome of the project. They are involved from the start of the project, including defining the project in conjunction with the Project Manager. Once the project has been launched they should ensure that it is actively reviewed.

The Project Sponsor is usually the one who has to negotiate a path through the tricky diplomatic areas of the project although the Project Manager will most likely be involved in such areas from time to time too!


  • Acts as champion of the project.
  • Is accountable for the delivery of planned benefits associated with the project.
  • Ensures resolution of issues escalated by the Project Manager or the Project Board.
  • Sponsors the communications programme; communicates the programme’s goals to the organization as a whole.
  • Makes key organisation/commercial decisions for the project.
  • Assures availability of essential project resources.
  • Approves the budget and decides tolerances.
  • Leads the Project Board.


Project Management Title: Project Board


This group, normally containing management grade personnel, is responsible for overseeing the progress of the project and reacting to any strategic problems. The group is optional, as the Sponsor-Manager relationship may be the best means of control, but is usually required in large projects that cross-functional boundaries.



  • Championing the project and raising awareness at senior level.
  • Approving strategies, implementation plan, project scope and milestones.
  • Resolving strategic and policy issues.
  • Driving and managing change through the organisation.
  • Prioritising project goals with other ongoing projects.
  • Communicating with other key organisational representatives.


Project Management Title: Senior Consultant or Supplier- side Project Manager


The person responsible for managing supplier-side input to the project.



  • Ensures that mandatory supplier requirements are met.
  • Manages the production and approval of the supplier side of the budget.
  • Makes effective use of supplier resources within the approved budget.
  • Tracks performance of consultants and takes appropriate action.
  • Proactively develops a collaborative relationship with the organisation to Project Steering Board level.
  • Ensures that there are clear communication paths within the project team and the organisation and supplier.
  • Acts as main point of contact between the supplier and the organisation.
  • Produces and monitors financial reports including entry and maintenance of all actual time and expense against the master plan.
  • Day to day management of supplier staff assigned to the project.
  • Quality Assures the work of supplier staff assigned to the project.
  • Encourages the transfer of product knowledge and skills to the appropriate staff within the organisation.



Project Management Title: Project Team Members


The staff who actively work on the project, at some stage, during the lifetime of the project. Some may have a specific role – for example, the Team might include a Project Administrator.



Team member roles will vary depending on the type of project. Typically they might be to:

  • Provide functional expertise in an administrative process
  • Work with users to ensure the project meets business needs
  • Documentation and analysis of current and future processes/systems
  • Identification and mapping of information needs
  • Defining requirements for reporting and interfacing
  • User training


Project Management Title: Project Administrator or Co-ordinator


Responsible for maintenance of the project plan, maintenance and updating of a project website (if appropriate). Provides administrative support to the Project Manager. This role is most likely to be required in larger cross-functional projects.



  • Sets up and manages support functions covering planning, tracking, reporting, quality management and internal communication.
  • Produces consolidated reporting to the Project Board, including milestone summary, key issues, risks, benefits, summary of costs incurred.
  • Establishes standards, tools and procedures for use on the project, including Issue, Risk, Change and Information Management.
  • Manages the Project Library.
  • Reviews project activities for compliance with procedures and standards.
  • Manages the support and provision of project tools and equipment.
  • Manages data security, software and license control.
  • Assists with the production of user documentation.
  • Assists with testing.


Project Management Title: Systems Developer


To work with the Project Manager on defining and executing development requirements.



  • Working with the Project Manager on definition of development requirements and priorities.
  • Data Migration.
  • Interfaces with other systems.
  • Reporting configuration and deployment.
  • Set up and maintenance of security rights and access permissions.
  • Contributing to technical strategy, policy and procedure.
  • Development and operation of technical testing programmes.
  • Production of technical documentation to agreed quality standards.
  • Reporting on progress/issues to management and users.


Project Management Title: System Administrator


Management and support of the IT system environments


  • Overall management and co-ordination of the programme of projects.
  • Contributing to strategy, policy and procedure.
  • Management of supplier/contractual relationships.
  • Budgetary control of the programme of projects.
  • Monitoring of, and responding to, issues at the programme level.
  • Providing regular status reports to the IPSC Programme Board.


For more project management related information, please visit our Training & Development Section.

Change Management Process: What is Change Management?

Change Management Process

What is Change Management Process?

Change is the only constant that we can rely on in the business world. It is critical for organizations to:

• Understand change
• Promote change
• Cope with change
• Value change

Although it seems an obvious question to begin with – the differences in how people perceive change is quite amazing. We find that the easiest way to understand what change represents is to use the diagram below. In other words, you know where you are and where you want to be – all you have to do now is get there.
Change management processDrivers for Change

The drivers for change can come from multiple sources both internal and external:

• Customers
• Internal processes
• Employees
• Economic conditions
• Competitors
• Suppliers
• Technology
• Culture

Organizations have to understand these drivers for change and their impact, both actual and potential, on the various activities that allow business to be transacted. The ability to cope with the changes is critical to long term survival.

The Change-Adept Organization

To have an organization that is adept at change there are three pre-requisites

• The imagination to innovate
• The professionalism to perform
• The climate to collaborate

The change-adept organization requires three main assets that will be allow the behavioral aspects outlined above to be used for change:

• Concepts
• Competence
• Connections

These assets are required no matter what type, intensity or level of change occurs. The next section looks at the types of change that can occur.

Types of Change

There are several types of change, each with its own set of characteristics and impact on the organization.

Incremental Change
The characteristics of incremental change include:

• Mostly happening
• Evolutionary
• Can be planned
• Can be imperceptible
• Can be insidious
• May be culturally driven

Transformational Change
The characteristics of transformational change are:

• Seldom happens
• Rarely planned
• Difficult to control
• Can be overpowering
• Can be unavoidable
• May be necessary to survive

Planned Change
For planned change the characteristics include:

• Focus is on structures and systems
• Focus is on implementation & planning
• Emphasis is on the people involved because organizations don’t change – people change!

Dimensions of Change

Change occurs along several dimensions:

• Leader Driven Change
• Process Driven Change
• Improvement Driven Change
• Organizational Renewal

Leader Driven Change

Leader Driven Change may be seen where:

• An organization gets a new leader who brings with them new ideas and approaches to the business.
• The leader of the organization realizes that change is crucial to survival and pushes it through the organization.

In these cases it is vital that the leader ‘walks the talk’ in relation to the change.

Process Driven Change

The change in this instance is focused primarily on the processes where:

• Innovation is required to upgrade the process.
• Efficiency requirements are increased.
• Customer requirements mean that current processes are no longer capable.
• Best practice has emerged and needs to be introduced to the process.

Improvement Driven Change

The emphasis in this type of change is to improve areas within the organization such as:

• Development of new skills in the workforce through cross training.
• Implementation of findings from benchmarking activity.
• Implementation of best practice
• Implementation of findings from continuous improvement activity.

Organizational Renewal

This type of change is most radical in that it looks at the whole organization in terms of:

• Maximizing benefits from synergistic activity.
• Business process reengineering
• Adjustment of business activity due to market forces.

No matter which type of change occurs there are certain requirements that need to be fulfilled if the change is to be implemented successfully.

For more training and learning material like the above article on Change Management Process, please visit our Training & Development Section.

Effective Meetings: How to conduct Effective Meetings in an Organization?

Art of Conducting Effective Meetings

Introduction to Effective Meetings: What’s a Meeting
A meeting is a gathering of people with one or more goals to be achieved. Meetings can be held in a variety of locations. They may be held for a variety of reasons each with their own particular impact on the organization and the attendees. Overall, meetings should be seen and used as effective vehicles for action and performance.

Value of Effective Meetings in the Organization
The value of meetings can be shown through
• A sense of involvement
• Communication
• Decision making
• Problem solving
• Creativity
• Team building

These can be considered on three levels
effective meetingsOn the level of the Organization
• Improved use of time
• Improved decision making
• Better communication
• Better use of resources
• Multiple perspectives utilized.

On the level of the Team
• Improved use of time
• Improved decision making
• Better communication
• Better use of resources
• Ownership of processes.

On the level of the Individual
• Improved use of time
• Involvement in decision making
• Better communication
• Better use of knowledge
• Socialization

There are many benefits that arise from the use of meetings in an organisation, provided that the meetings are effective and focused. This makes us ask the question – what makes meetings work?

Making Meetings Work
It is possible to make meetings work by:
• Clarifying the understanding of what a meeting actually is.
• Examining different types of meeting and choosing the most suitable.
• Knowing why meetings fail
• Identifying and applying key skills and techniques.

making effective meetingsUnderstanding the need for meetings allows participants to:
• See the real value of an effective meeting process.
• Set objectives for meetings and focus on achieving great outcomes.
• Try to improve meetings as communication and decision making vehicles.

Understanding the types of meetings allows participants to:
• Select the appropriate meeting type for the purpose.
• Prevent the downside associated with running the wrong meeting.
• Improve the image of meetings in the organization.

Understanding the reasons for failure allows the organizers of meetings to:
• Avoid the main mistakes.
• Remove performance obstacles
• Plan and resource meetings appropriately.

Application of key techniques and skills will cause;
• Improvement in the outcome of meetings
• Improvement in the level of commitment to and involvement in meetings.
• Better use of meeting time by focusing in on key issues through a structured process.

For more training and learning material, please visit our Training & Development Section.

Performance Appraisal Process – Overview, Components and Benefits

Performance Appraisal

This informative article on Performance Appraisal helps understand the key concepts associated with Performance Appraisal.

Why Have Performance Appraisal?
Performance Appraisal offers several advantages at the level of the:
• Recognition of past effort
• Developmental requirements can be uncovered

• Alignment of effort with objectives
• Motivation of team members

• Development of staff
• Achievement of key objectives
• Best and focused utilization of human resources

Performance AppraisalPerformance Appraisal and the Organization
The benefits to the individual, team and organization are good reasons for having an appraisal process in place. To maximize the benefits – the organization must support the appraisal process through:
• Appropriate resources to facilitate the process
• Design of a suitable process for the organization.
• Training of management staff in the process.
• Training of the personnel in the process.

Performance Appraisal Process

The main components of the appraisal process can be listed as:
• Manager
• Employee
• Peers
• Facts
• Opinions
• Positive
• Negative

Appraisal Procedure
To increase the effectiveness of the appraisal process the following issues must be covered by the procedure.
• Agree the objectives
• Monitor performance
• Give sufficient notice
• Prepare any necessary documentation
• Prepare the location
• Conduct the appraisal
• Complete all relevant documentation
• Implement any agreed plans

Overall Benefits of Performance Appraisal
Having a well-defined procedure that can be followed and fully implemented will all the overall benefits of appraisal to be delivered. These benefits can be listed as:
• Increased employee performance
• Greater control of work
• Improved motivation and commitment
• Increased information flow
• Better relationships within & across the organization

For more training and learning material, please visit our Training & Development Section.

Child Education Talk by Dr B. M. Hegde – How Schools are Making Kids an Idiot from a Genius? – Must Watch

Child Education Talk by Dr B. M. Hegde

Child Education

Dr. B. M. Hegde has given a inspiring talk on Child Education. This talk was named How Schools are Making Kids an Idiot from a Genius?

There are many beautiful inspiring messages he gave during his talk. One of the takeaways which I liked the most was about helping others and uniting with all. He said “I” stands for “ILLNESS” while “We” stands for “WELLNESS”.

Below is the must watch video of the awesome speech on by Dr. B. M. Hegde:

For more education and career related information, please visit our Training & Development Section

Fresher Jobs Fat Salary Package Truth – कोटी कोटी रुपयांच्या पॅकेजचे वास्तव

Fresher Jobs Fat Salary Package Truth – कोटी कोटी रुपयांच्या पॅकेजचे वास्तव

Fresher Jobs Salary Package Truth:
Fresher Jobs

The author has really revealed the truth behind the salary packages given while offering Fresher Jobs. This is a very informative article regarding Fresher Jobs.


प्रत्येक कंपनीकडून दिल्या जाणाऱ्या पगाराचे पॅकेज हे काही छोटय़ा छोटय़ा गोष्टींनी बनते.


सरकारी नोकऱ्या सोडल्या तर सहसा कुठलीही खासगी कंपनी आज १०० टक्के फिक्स पगार देऊ करत नाही.


‘२२ वर्षांच्या इंजिनीअरला मायक्रोसॉफ्ट / उबर / गूगल / अमक्यातमक्या कंपनीची सव्वा कोटी वार्षिक पगाराची ऑफर ’, ‘आयआयएम, अहमदाबादच्या मुलीला न्यूयॉर्कमध्ये दीड कोटीचे पॅकेज’ अशा बातम्या हल्ली नित्याच्या झाल्या आहेत. अमेरिकन डॉलरमध्ये असलेल्या पॅकेजला खूप सुलभपणे ७० ने गुणून भारतीय रुपयांत डोळे विस्फारणारे आकडे छापून सनसनी निर्माण करण्याचा प्रयत्न अशा बातम्यांमधून होत असतो. परंतु प्रत्यक्षात वास्तव काय आहे? या ‘पगार पॅकेज’चे सत्य उलगडून दाखवणारा लेख..


आयआयटी आणि आयआयएमच्या कॅम्पस इंटरवूमधून तिथल्या विद्यार्थ्यांना अमेरिकेत काही कंपन्यांकडून ‘ऑफर’ झालेल्या गलेलठ्ठ पगाराच्या बातम्या आपण सर्वानीच वाचल्या असतील. माध्यमांतूनही अशा बातम्या सुरसपणे चर्चिल्या जातात. ‘२२ वर्षांच्या इंजिनीअरला मायक्रोसॉफ्ट / उबर / गूगल / अमक्यातमक्या कंपनीची सव्वा कोटी वार्षिक पगाराची ऑफर ’, ‘आयआयएम, अहमदाबादच्या मुलीला न्यूयॉर्कमध्ये दीड कोटीचे पॅकेज’ अशा बातम्या हल्ली नित्याच्या झाल्या आहेत. अमेरिकन डॉलरमध्ये असलेल्या पॅकेजला खूप सुलभपणे ७० ने गुणून भारतीय रुपयांत डोळे विस्फारणारे आकडे छापून सनसनी निर्माण करण्याचा प्रयत्न अशा बातम्यांमधून होत असतो. या लेखात या ‘पगार पॅकेज’मधील सत्य समजून घेण्याचा प्रयत्न केला आहे.


या बातम्यांचा परिणाम विशेषत: समाजातील दोन वर्गावर होतो. १) अभियांत्रिकी (बी. ई./ बी. टेक.) आणि व्यवस्थापन (एमबीए) अभ्यासक्रम करणारे / करण्यास इच्छुक असणारे विद्यार्थी आणि २) त्यांचे पालक!


या दोन वर्गाना साधारणपणे खालील दोन प्रकारांत विभागात येईल :


प्रकार एक : भारावलेले पालक आणि त्यांचे भांबावलेले पाल्य.
आपल्या मुलाची अथवा मुलीची बौद्धिक क्षमता, मेहनत करण्याची तयारी, आधी मिळालेले गुण, शिक्षणासाठी उपलब्ध असणारा पैसा अशा कुठल्याही गोष्टीचा विचार न करता या प्रकारातील पालक ‘सव्वा कोटी पगार आणि कॅलिफोर्नियामध्ये नोकरी’ हे स्वप्न आपल्या मुलांवर लादतात. आणि मग सुरू होतो एक संघर्ष! आयआयटी जेईई / आयआयएमच्या उअळ साठी महागडे क्लास लावणे, पाल्याचे खेळ, मित्र-मैत्रिणी सगळं बंद करून बैलासारखे घाण्याला जुंपणे सुरू होते. आणि एवढे करूनही जर अ‍‍ॅडमिशन नाही मिळाली तर मग अख्खे घर सुतकात बुडते!


प्रकार दोन : इंजिनीयर/ एमबीए होऊन, नोकरी मिळूनसुद्धा ‘करोड रुपयाचे पॅकेज न मिळाल्याने’ भ्रमनिरास झालेले दु:खी पालक व त्यांचे पाल्य.
हा प्रकार आणखी डेंजरस! कारण कसून अभ्यास करून, चांगल्या महाविद्यालयात प्रवेश मिळवून, कॅम्पस इंटरवूमधून या मुलांना वार्षिक १०-१२ लाख रुपये पगाराच्या नोकऱ्या मिळाल्या तरी त्यांना ‘आपला पेला अजून अर्धा’ आहे असेच वाटत राहते. कारण कॉलेजमधल्या कोणा एकाला मिळालेली कथित ‘करोड’ रुपयांची (!) अमेरिकन ऑफर! म्हणजे मिळालेल्या नोकरीचा आनंद न घेता यांचे घरसुद्धा सुतक साजरे करते!


या पाश्र्वभूमीवर या करोड रुपयांच्या पॅकेजचे वास्तव समजावून घेणे आवश्यक ठरते.


१. ‘सॅलरी पॅकेज’ म्हणजे नक्की काय?


प्रत्येक कंपनीकडून दिल्या जाणाऱ्या पगाराचे पॅकेज हे काही छोटय़ा छोटय़ा गोष्टींनी बनते. प्रत्येक पॅकेजमध्ये ‘फिक्स’ आणि ‘व्हेरिएबल’ असे मूळ दोन विभाग असतात. ‘फिक्स’ म्हणजे तुम्हाला दरवर्षी नक्की मिळणारा पगार आणि ‘व्हेरिएबल’ म्हणजे तुमच्या / कंपनीच्या कामगिरीवर/ व्यावसायिक फायद्या-तोटय़ावर अवलंबून असणारा पगार. सध्या ज्या क्षेत्रात आणि विभागात तुम्ही नोकरी करता त्याप्रमाणे या ‘फिक्स’ वेतनाची पॅकेजमधील टक्केवारी बदलते. उदा. विक्री, मार्केटिंग इत्यादी विभागांतील कर्मचाऱ्यांना जर १०० रुपयांचे ‘पॅकेज’ असेल, तर त्यातील ६० टक्के अथवा कधी कधी केवळ ५० टक्के पगार ‘फिक्स’- म्हणजे हातात मिळणार असतो. तुमचे काम जर बॅक ऑफिसचे अथवा अ‍‍ॅडमिन / एचआर वगैरे असेल तर कदाचित हीच टक्केवारी ८० टक्के फिक्स आणि २० टक्के व्हेरिएबल अशी असू शकते. पण एक मात्र खरं, की सरकारी नोकऱ्या सोडल्या तर सहसा कुठलीही खासगी कंपनी आज १०० टक्के फिक्स पगार देऊ करत नाही.


या ‘फिक्स’मध्ये मोठा सहभाग असतो तो मूळ पगार- म्हणजे ‘बेसिक सॅलरी’चा. ज्यावर तुमचा प्रॉव्हिडंट फंड, ग्रॅच्युइटी वगैरे गणले जातात. तसेच उरलेला फिक्स पगार घरभाडे भत्ता, वाहतूक भत्ता, एलटीए (वार्षिक), मेडिकल रिइम्बर्समेंट, फूड कुपन्स (तिकीट/ सोडेक्सो, इ.) वगैरे भागांनी बनतो. व्हेरिएबल पगार म्हणजे वार्षिक बोनस / सेल्स कमिशन वगैरे भागांनी बनतो; ज्याची ‘मिळेलच’ अशी खात्री कोणी देऊ शकत नाही. त्यामुळे एखादी कंपनी १०० रुपयांचे ‘पॅकेज’ देत असेल तर त्याचा अर्थ १०० रुपये बँक खात्यात जमा झालेच असा होत नाही. तसेच कंपनी आपल्या कर्मचाऱ्यांना देऊ करीत असलेल्या इतर सोयीसुविधासुद्धा ‘कॉस्ट टू कंपनी’मध्ये धरल्या जातात आणि त्यांची किंमत ‘पॅकेज’मध्ये दाखवली जाते. म्हणजे एखाद्या कंपनीने तुम्हाला दहा लाखांचा आरोग्य विमा देऊ केला तर त्याचा दहा हजार वगैरे जो काही वार्षिक हप्ता असेल, तो तुमच्या ‘पॅकेज’मध्ये समाविष्ट करून दाखवला जातो. हे दहा हजार रुपये तुम्हाला मिळणार नसतात; पण कंपनी तुमच्यावर खर्च करणार असल्याने ते तुम्हाला ‘बेनिफिट’ म्हणून दाखवतात. एखादी कंपनी कर्मचाऱ्याला घरापासून कार्यालयापर्यंत बससेवा देत असेल तर त्याचा खर्चसुद्धा ‘पॅकेज’मध्ये दाखवला जाण्याची उदाहरणे आहेत.


तसेच तुमच्या कमाईवर आयकर तर वेगळाच! त्याचा तर आपण अजून विचारसुद्धा केलेला नाहीये. म्हणजे १०० रुपये ‘पॅकेज’वाल्या माणसाला एखाद्या वर्षी कंपनीची किंवा त्याची स्वत:ची कामगिरी चांगली झाली नाही म्हणून सॅलरी स्लिपच्या डावीकडे ६० रुपयेच दिसू शकतात. आणि त्यावरसुद्धा सरासरी ३० टक्के आयकर धरला तर बँकेत ४२ रुपयेच जमा होऊ शकतात!


म्हणजे ‘सॅलरी पॅकेज’ हा फार फसवा प्रकार असतो आणि सामान्य माणसांना तो न समजल्याने पॅकेज भागिले १२ महिने करून ‘बापरे! त्याला एवढे लाख महिन्याला मिळतात!’ अशा चर्चा आपल्या मराठी मध्यमवर्गीय घरांमध्ये डोळे विस्फारून केल्या जातात.


२. इतर देशांतही पॅकेजेस अशीच असतात का?


अमेरिका, सिंगापूर, ऑस्ट्रेलिया, युरोपियन देश आदी ठिकाणीसुद्धा हेच फिक्स आणि व्हेरिएबलचे तत्त्व राबवले जाते. पण त्यांचे ‘स्ट्रक्चर’ वेगळे असू शकते. म्हणजे बऱ्याच तंत्रज्ञान क्षेत्रातील कंपन्या आपल्या ‘पॅकेज’मध्ये ‘एम्प्लॉई स्टॉक ऑप्शन्स’ देतात. तसेच पहिल्या वर्षी ‘जॉइनिंग बोनस’ अथवा ‘साइनिंग बोनस’ देतात. हे बोनस फक्त पहिल्या वर्षी मिळतात आणि त्यामुळे दुसऱ्या वर्षांपासून ते गायब होतात. स्टॉक ऑप्शन्स म्हणजे कंपनीचे शेअर्ससुद्धा असेच दिले जातात; जे हळूहळू दरवर्षी काहीएक संख्येत कर्मचाऱ्याच्या डिमॅट खात्यात चार ते पाच वर्षांत जमा होतात. आणि कर्मचारी ते लगेच विकूही शकत नाही. या चार-पाच वर्षांच्या काळात जर कंपनीच्या शेअरची किंमत कमी झाली तर त्याचा फटका कर्मचाऱ्याला बसतो. म्हणजे पॅकेजमध्ये शेअरच्या आजच्या भावात दाखवलेले मनोहारी चित्र कायम राहीलच असे नाही.


एक उदाहरण घेऊ. समजा, एखादा विद्यार्थी आज मायक्रोसॉफ्टमध्ये अमेरिकेत रुजू होतोय आणि कंपनी त्याला ‘पॅकेज’मध्ये ५०० रिस्ट्रिक्टेड स्टॉक ऑप्शन्स देणार असे दाखवतेय, तर सहसा हे ५०० शेअर्स दरवर्षी एक-चतुर्थाश- म्हणजे प्रत्येक वर्षांच्या शेवटी १२५ असे चार वर्षांत जमा होतात. आज मायक्रोसॉफ्टच्या शेअरची किंमत साधारण ६८ डॉलर आहे. म्हणजे जरी कंपनीने त्या विद्यार्थ्यांला ५०० शेअर्स देण्याचे कबूल केले असेल, तरी त्याचा अर्थ पॅकेजमध्ये पहिल्याच वर्षी त्याला ५०० शेअर्स गुणिले ६८ डॉलर असे ३४ हजार डॉलर्स.. म्हणजे आपल्या बाळबोध गणिताप्रमाणे २३ लाख ८० हजार रुपये मिळणार नाहीत. पण पॅकेज जाहीर करताना हे सगळे अंतर्भूत करून दाखवले जाते. अमेरिकन आणि युरोपियन कंपन्यांचे हे नेहमीचे आहे.


काही कंपन्या हे शेअर्स कधी विकायचे, याचेही नियम घालून देतात. म्हणजे शेअर मिळाल्यापासून दोन वर्षे विकायचे नाहीत, किंवा कंपनी सोडली तर अर्धे शेअर परत द्यायचे, वगैरे वगैरे. याचाही विचार ‘पॅकेज’मध्ये केला पाहिजे.


३. डॉलरमधले पगार जास्त का असतात?


याचे साधे उत्तर म्हणजे- ते जास्त असण्यापेक्षा जास्त वाटतात. याचं कारण- आपली डॉलरला गुणिले ७० करण्याची घाई! आपण हे लक्षात घेत नाही, की जो डॉलरमध्ये कमावतो तो डॉलरमध्येच खर्च करतो! हे समजून घेण्यासाठी ‘पर्चेसिंग पॉवर पॅरिटी’ हा प्रकार प्रथम समजून घेऊ. याचा अर्थ- एखाद्या देशात स्थानिक चलन कोणत्या वस्तू किती भावात विकत घेऊ शकते, ती क्षमता. ज्यांना अर्थशास्त्र कळत नाही त्यांच्यासाठी हा मुद्दा समजून घेण्याचा सोपा उपाय म्हणजे ‘द इकॉनॉमिस्ट’ या मासिकाने १९८६ मध्ये गंमत म्हणून तयार केलेली ‘बिग मॅक इंडेक्स’! मॅकडॉनल्ड्स ही फास्ट फूड कंपनी बहुतेक देशांत पसरली आहे आणि त्यांचा प्रसिद्ध बिग मॅक बर्गर त्या, त्या देशात कितीला मिळतो, यावरून हा तक्ता त्यांनी बनवला. यातून वर नमूद केलेली ‘चलनाची खरेदी करण्याची क्षमता’ समजून घेता येईल.


जानेवारी २०१७ च्या किमतीनुसार, अमेरिकेत ५.०६ डॉलर्सला मिळणारा बर्गर भारतातील मॅकडॉनल्ड्समध्ये १७० रुपयाला मिळतो! म्हणजे १७० / ५.०६ = ३३.५९ रुपयाला एक डॉलर असा हिशेब झाला. आपण गणित मात्र नेहमी ७० ने गुणून करतो! याचा अर्थ भारतात नोकरी करणाऱ्या व्यक्तीला बर्गर खायचा असेल तर अमेरिकेतल्या व्यक्तीपेक्षा अर्धे पैसे भारतीय चलनात पुरेसे होतील.


आता यातला गमतीचा भाग जरी सोडला तरी बाकी ‘कॉस्ट ऑफ लिव्हिंग’चा विचार केला तरी अमेरिकेत- आणि त्यातही कॅलिफोर्निया बे एरियामध्ये / लंडन / सिंगापूरमध्ये राहणे भारतापेक्षा फार महागडे आहे. त्यामुळे तिकडच्या लोकांना आपल्याला भन्नाट वाटणारे पगार डॉलरमध्ये मिळतात. अजून काही उदाहरणे पाहू या..


सॅन फ्रान्सिस्कोमध्ये मेट्रोचे किमान भाडे आहे २.२६ डॉलर. आणि आपल्या मुंबईमध्ये ते आहे- १० रुपये. म्हणजे ७० च्या हिशेबाने तिकडची मेट्रो किमान १५८.२ रुपये घेते, तर आपला मुंबईकर १० रुपयांत मेट्रोमध्ये किमान भाडय़ात प्रवास करू शकतो.


सॅन फ्रान्सिस्कोमध्ये वन बीएचके सदनिकेचे किमान भाडे २५०० डॉलर्स. आणि मुंबईमध्ये अगदी दादरसारख्या ठिकाणीसुद्धा आज वन बीएचके सदनिका ३० ते ३५ हजार रुपये महिना भाडय़ात मिळते. याचा अर्थ असा, की सॅन फ्रान्सिस्कोमध्ये एका डॉलरची खरेदी करण्याची क्षमता ही ३५०००/ २५०० = १४ रुपये- जी खरेदी मुंबईमध्ये करू शकेल तेवढी आहे. ७० रुपये नव्हे!


सिंगापूरमध्ये टॅक्सीभाडे (एसी) आहे किमान ३.५ सिंगापूर डॉलर. आणि मुंबईमध्ये कूल कॅबचे किमान भाडे आहे- २८ रुपये. म्हणजे सिंगापूर डॉलर आणि भारतीय रुपये यांचा फॉरेन एक्स्चेंज रेट आज जरी १ सिंगापूर डॉलर = ४८ भारतीय रुपयांच्या आसपास असला, तरी याचा अर्थ असा नाही, की भारतात ४८ रुपयांत जी वस्तू मिळते ती सिंगापूर डॉलरमध्ये एक डॉलरला मिळेल.


लंडनमध्ये ब्रेडचा एक लोफ मिळतो एक पाउंडमध्ये! पण पुण्यामध्ये तोच ब्रेड ९० रुपयाला नव्हे, तर तो मिळतो साधारण १५ ते २० रुपयाला!


दुसरी गोष्ट म्हणजे अमेरिका आणि भारतातील सामाजिक आणि आर्थिक रचना! मनुष्यबळ तिकडे फार महाग असल्याने कितीही कमावत असलात तरी ड्रायव्हिंग/ लॉन्ड्री / बागकाम / साफसफाई असली सर्व कामे स्वत:ची स्वत:च करावी लागतात. आपल्याकडे मात्र लोकसंख्या जास्त असल्याने कमी पैशांत कामाला माणसे मिळतात. अमेरिकेत चांगल्या पाळणाघराचे आठवडय़ाला २०० डॉलर्स भरावे लागतात. इकडे महिना चार-पाच हजारांत चांगली पाळणाघरे मिळतात. म्हणजे नुसता पैसा कमावणे एक गोष्ट झाली; आणि तिकडे अमेरिकन माणसाप्रमाणे आयुष्य जगणे ही वेगळी गोष्ट झाली. भारतीय समाजात श्रमाला किंमत नसल्याने असली घरगुती कामेसुद्धा बऱ्याच लोकांना कमीपणाची वाटतात. आणि मग तिकडे गेल्यावर गुपचूप डॉलर वाचवायला आपल्याला सगळी कामे करावी लागतात. यासाठीही तुमची तयारी असली पाहिजे.


एखादा विद्यार्थी एक लाख ७५ हजार अमेरिकन डॉलरच्या (फॉरेन एक्स्चेंज रेटच्या हिशेबाने सव्वा कोटी रुपये!) पॅकेजवर निवडला गेला आणि तो अमेरिका / सिंगापूर / लंडन अशा ठिकाणी राहणार असेल तर त्याला स्थानिक ‘कॉस्ट ऑफ लिव्हिंग’प्रमाणे तो पगार तिकडेच खर्च करायचा आहे, हे लक्षात घ्या. त्यातही अमेरिकेत त्याला २८ टक्के कर बसणार. त्यात आधी सांगितल्याप्रमाणे त्याचा फिक्स पगार साधारण ५० टक्के- म्हणजे ८७,५०० डॉलर असणार. आणि बाकी सगळे कामगिरीवर अवलंबून!


हे सगळं सरासरी काढून पाहिलं तर भारतात राहणे अमेरिकेपेक्षा साधारण ६४ टक्के स्वस्त आहे! म्हणजे अमेरिकेत ८७, ५०० डॉलर वार्षिक पगार घेणारा आणि तिकडेच खर्च करणारा माणूस आपली ‘लाइफस्टाईल’ न बदलता इकडे भारतात २१ लाख रुपये वार्षिक पगारात आरामात राहू शकतो. (प्री- टॅक्स) अर्थात, २१ लाख रुपये पगारसुद्धा जास्त आहेच! परंतु सव्वा कोटी- दीड कोटीच्या स्वप्नातून बाहेर पडलेलेच बरे. कारण आज भारतीय कंपन्या व भारतात काम करणाऱ्या बहुराष्ट्रीय कंपन्यासुद्धा चांगल्या महाविद्यालयांमधील नवपदवीधर, आयआयएम- एमबीए  किंवा आयआयटी इंजिनीअरना १५ ते २० लाख रुपये वार्षिक पगार देतात. त्यातही ‘स्टॉक ऑप्शन्स’ वगैरे प्रकार कमी असतात. म्हणजे हातात जास्त पगार येतो. आणि इकडे त्याच पैशात तुम्ही ड्रायव्हर, कामवाली बाई, माळी, इस्त्रीवाला वगैरे लोकांकडून स्वस्तात कामे करून घेऊ शकता!


हे सर्व लिहावेसे वाटले, कारण मध्यमवर्गीय घरांमध्ये कोटी- दीड कोटी पगाराच्या नोकऱ्या मिळण्याच्या बातम्या या नको ती स्वप्ने आणि मुलांवर दडपण निर्माण करतात. तेव्हा बाळबोधपणे प्रत्येक अमेरिकन डॉलरच्या नोकरीच्या पॅकेजला गुणिले ७० करणं आपण सोडून दिलेलंच बरं!


Author of Fresher Jobs Salary package Truth:
चिन्मय गवाणकर


 Above Fresher Jobs Fat Salary Package Truth – कोटी कोटी रुपयांच्या पॅकेजचे वास्तव article was published in Loksatta Marathi newspaper on 16 July 2017. For more Fresher Jobs related and career related information, please visit our Career Section and for more Fresher Jobs related and other news related articles, please visit our News Section.


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